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:: year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(5): 31-48 Back to browse issues page
From Kovar (Shiraz) to the Persian Gulf Beaches; An Analysis of the Importance of Kovar Bridge and Bahman Dam Commerce in the Sassanid and the Beginning of Islam Periods
Mohammad Ismail Ismaili Jelodar1, Hamid Poordavood 2, Ali Arab3
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology University of Tehran.
2- M.A. Archaeology University of Tehran. , hamidpoordavood@yahoo.com
3- Ph.D. Candidate University of Tehran.
Abstract:   (6297 Views)
Abstract
Throughout the period of Sassanids, as well as in the Islamic period, trade played a very important role in their economies and livelihoods. Meanwhile, due to political reasons in Late of Sassanid period, access to the Persian Gulf has been of particular importance. The city of Kuvar was part of the Fars province’s trade route because it led to the Persian Gulf on one side and to the central areas of the empire, for this reason, it has played a colorful role throughout history. Due to the presence of the riverside (Qara-aqag) near this city, the commercial convoys had to use a bridge to cross the river. In this study, attempts to by studying archaeological studies as well as library research investigate the water source of Kuvar city by, the role of Kuvar, bridge in connection with Persian Gulf as well as the etymology of city name. Bridge Kovar’s survival has been one of the possible caravans pass options. By examining the original geographical texts from the early centuries of Islam, as well as examining the current bridge structure, one can infer that this city had a very important role in establishing and sustaining trade from the Sassanid period to the Islamic period. Also, the durability and survival of this city has historically been dependent on water obtained from the Bahman Dam through specific facilities. Accordingly, in the present study, it has been attempted to explain how and these facilities function, as well as, in addition to Paul Kuvar’s ontology of construction technique and its application and performance, based on existing written sources, the landscape of the area has been reviewed and finally Evaluate the results, report the proposed chronology. This study attempts to answer the following questions: How is the main source of water in the city of Kuvar evaluated and what is the mechanism of water transfer to the city of Kuvar? How is the role of Kuvar city as a Midways on the route to the Persian Gulf and Siraf evaluated and the main evidence that what was the significance of the historic bridge of Kuvar?
Keywords: Kuvar, Kuvar Bridge, Bahman Dam, Road, Persian Gulf.

Introduction
In the end of the Sassanid period, transit from the Silk Road had been restricted due to the Iranian and Byzantine wars, so the Persian Gulf had replaced this route and thereby continued trade links with the east and west of the empire. Undoubtedly, the main need of every city is a permanent source of water, so the location of cities is a function of the factors that are undoubtedly the among main one’s access to water. It is also one of the most important needs of governments in commercial, political, military and social communication in urban areas is the construction of bridges. Clearly, the existence of rivers, especially permanent waterways and valleys will be a major obstacle to these communications, on this basis, material evidence has remained to show that such buildings are prominent examples of the bard Borid Bridge, the Daughter Bridge and other ancient bridges from the Sassanid period. This has continued in the Islamic era with the construction of new structures, the restoration of old bridges. The element of commerce has been one of the important reasons to pay attention to these structures, In the Islamic era, a large volume of trade was carried out through the central and southern cities of Iran, including the Persian Gulf ports at the head of the Siraf port. Meanwhile, Fars province has played a vital role in this trade route due to its proximity to the Persian Gulf. Also, of other important factors in the creation and survival of the city have been access to other areas. Among these cities is Kuvar, the city has it long time a major Role of connection Shiraz to the Persian Gulf, and this city a few hundred yard away from the Qareq Aghaj river.

Research Finding
From the Sassanid to the Islamic periods, maritime trade, which was directly linked to the Persian Gulf, has been very important in the Iranian economy. Among the maritime trade gear were cities that facilitated Caravans access to the Persian Gulf. Sometimes in some geographical situations due to obstacles such as rivers, the caravan movement was dependent on the construction of bridges that made caravan movement possible. But the construction of the historic Kuvar Bridge in the Sassanid period has been eliminated the problem. The bridge, which a historical background in style and architecture, has been survived to this day despite extensive damage. The city needed a permanent source of water, which has done by building an avalanche and raising the water level and mounting water on the ground by avalanche installations. But due to surface effects, such as several hills that prevented water from moving, a Qanat were used to pass through the water and flow to the surface. This method has been observed in other parts of Iran such as Arrajan. Due to the size of the kuvar city, it was necessary manage the water that flowed into the city. In the Islamic period a village called Khaffr was established to manage the water that flowed into the Kuvar, which was responsible for managing and distributing the required water to the Kuvar. This article also deals with the etymology of the name of the city, Ardeshir Babakan report is the first text to come up the name of this the city, in this book the city is called Guar, and in the Islamic era the name of this city has evolved.

Conclusion
It has been said, that the city has long been regarded for its role and importance in the way it has been concerned, Bridge Kuvar and the Bahman dam and its associated subdivisions, since they were directly linked to the creation and survival of this city. Undoubtedly, the city of Kuvar built has been to communicate with the Persian Gulf. Since the water factor is one of the most important factors for the formation and survival of the city, undoubtedly, the avalanche and its associated structures have also been built since the foundation of the city. Concerning the dating of the Kuvar Bridge, according to the boulders cut at the base of the bridge can be said was originally built in the Sassanid period. As mentioned, that there was a village called Khaffr near the city of Kuvar which was responsible for water management in the Islamic era, which indicates the high water consumption due to the size and importance of the city, which also has been required special management.
Keywords: Kuvar, Kuvar Bridge, Bahman Dam, Road, Persian Gulf
Full-Text [PDF 3129 kb]   (1270 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/02/13 | Accepted: 2019/02/13 | Published: 2019/02/13

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Ismaili Jelodar M I, Poordavood H, Arab A. From Kovar (Shiraz) to the Persian Gulf Beaches; An Analysis of the Importance of Kovar Bridge and Bahman Dam Commerce in the Sassanid and the Beginning of Islam Periods. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (5) :31-48
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year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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