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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(4): 69-84 Back to browse issues page
The Influence Area of Culture and Cultural Interactions of the Scythian Tribes in Eurasia
Reza Rezalou1, Yahya Ayremlou2, Pasha Pashazadeh3, Shima Azizi4
1- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili , reza_rezaloo@yahoo.com
2- Ph.D. Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
3- Ph.D. Candidate Archaeology, Islamic Azad University Miyaneh Branch.
4- M.A. Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
Abstract:   (8036 Views)
Migrant Scythian tribes were occupied many parts of the Eurasia following a move to the West in the first millennium B.C. The Scythian people were among the last Aryan tribes who, after the migration of other indo-European tribes, emerged from their mainland (Southern Russia) at the end of the Eighth century, and dispersed in Northern Central and Southern Siberia, the North of the Caspian Sea and its Western boundary, in the vast plains of the Caucasus Mountains. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence area and cultural interactions of these ethnic groups in sixteen geographical zones of the Eurasia, from east to West. The present study in a historical method, with a qualitative approach and based on archaeological reports have studied dispersion of the Scythian type artifacts in the West Mongolia, Tuva region, the Altai region, Central Asia, Iran, South Caucasus, North Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Crimea, southern Ukraine and South-East Europe, Egypt, Greece, West Mediterranean, Central and Western Europe. Because of the extent of the study area, in this research has been tried to be mentioned to the main of the Scythian areas in the each zone and its materials, so that be shown a detailed view of the extent of this culture in Eurasia. The present research has been carried out according to these main questions: How is the extent area of the Scythian culture? What is the type of their materials in each of these areas? The results point to the vastness of this culture in a wide area of geography. The culture has been able to influence many cultural and geographical areas and attract the cultures of many tribes, in the short time. In many of the areas studied, there are similar findings from this culture.
Keywords: Eurasia, Scythian Tribes, Scythian Cultural, Scythian Burial.

When a tribe enter to an alien land as an immigrant or an invader, it develops its culture as an effective factor over time. Although immigrant or invading peoples may not pursue such a goal, undeniable impacts and cultural relations, as a factor in stimulating such processes, will accelerate. They seek to dominate human resources in the every part of the world, and change the cultural, political, and social equations of the conquered regions and, after consolidating their presence, propagate purposely their culture. In the meantime, due to cultural interactions, the art of these immigrant or invading generations also affects. This impact has been associated with war in most cases, and the outcome of such a struggle is the creation of a cohesive culture in a wide range. The more these wars continue and wider, the greater the culture of dominant folk; in this process, the power of the invading force is a major factor. The generators of homogeneity in this area act in the most common and similar cases. In other words, the cultural attributes of a people in two distant geographic districts show similar characteristics. The development of the culture of the Scychian peoples in a widespread zone, and in a short time, has almost followed such a mechanism. Scythian people at the beginning of the first millennium B.C in their movement were to the west, Central Asia, North and South Caucasus, the north of the Black Sea, East Europe, Northwest of Iran, East Anatolia, Mesopotamia and the vicinity of Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea and they left their cultural features in these areas. In these movement they, they left many traces such as unique burials, special techniques for decorating ornamental objects. The course of the movement and how they deal with the ruling powers in these regions, including Urartu, Med, Mana and Asshur, in historical sources have been described.

Basically, what is attributed to the Scythian people, is specific cultural material that specific to them. In terms of burial data, the horse has been a special place in the sacred burial ground, so that this can be seen in most of the ancient Scythian sites. In terms of burial data, the existence of objects such as triangular and flat iron and bronze arrowheads (often with a reverse barb) interesting cheekpieces with three holes in the middle of them for passage of rope that in most cases they end up with animals such as horses, eagles and rams, iron and bronze bits for harness, special styles for decorating objects (that known as animal styles, stickers and Other war material specifically) are show the art and culture of the Scythian peoples in Eurasia. The materials of the Scythian tripes have been found in the west of Mongolia from Beiram Kurgan: In Tuva region from Aimyrlig, Arglykty and Shurmak-Tei Kurgans; in Altai zone from Pazirik, Ust-Kuyum, Kurtu II and Katanda Kurgans; in central Asia the Scythian material have been found from Tasmola, Chilikta valley, Irtysh, Alakul, Uigarak and Tagisken Kurgans. in Iran have been found from Khoram Abad cemetery, in the south of Caucasus from Kar Mirblur, Musa Yeri, Chitan Dagh, in the north of Caucasus from Kelermess, Kostromaskaya, Ulski, Voronezhskaya, Ust-Labinskaya and Elizavetovskaya, in Mesopotamia from Assur, Musel, Karkmish and Al Mina. Also, the materials of the Scythian tripes have been in Asia Minor from Alaja Huyuk, Kernes dagh, Pazarli, Yazili Kaya, Gurdion and Hesarlik, in Krimeh from Temir-Gora, Perekop Isthmus, Talayevskii, Bosporus, Zolotoi, in the south of Ukrain and southeast of Europ from Elizavetinskaya, Chertomlyk, Solokha, Melitopol and Gaimanova mogila Kurgans, in Egypt from Tel Defaneh, Nakratis, Elfantin, Teps, in Greece from Aten, Atika, Delfi and Missen, in central Europ from Zwolaki, Zakrzow, Chelm, Morawy, Miyniec and Villach sites, in the west of Mediterranean from Megara Hibela, Katania and Motye sites and in the west of Europ from Brussels and France.

The remarkable expansion of the culture of the Scythian peoples over a wide geographical range during the few hundred years has made it one of the rarest ancient cultures. These nomadic peoples (wherever they could) have been left their cultural influence. In the areas where they entered, the most important work of their ancestors, the magnificent burials, is reminiscent, and in other areas, under their influence, the Scythian culture in the artistic objects of manifestation has been transported from the land to another country. So, the extent of damage to the their culture have been in east area Mongolia, in west with France in Europe, in north with Russia, and the southernmost part in Shush and Marvdasht.
Keywords: Eurasia, Scythian Tribes, Scythian Cultural, Scythian Burial.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/12/7 | Accepted: 2018/12/7 | Published: 2018/12/7
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Rezalou R, Ayremlou Y, Pashazadeh P, Azizi S. The Influence Area of Culture and Cultural Interactions of the Scythian Tribes in Eurasia. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (4) :69-84
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