[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2023, 6(22): 379-396 Back to browse issues page
Elaboration and Analysis of Socio-economical Functions of the Institution of Waqf in Ardabil During the Qajar Period
Jamal Karimnia1, Manijeh Sadri *2, Simin Fasihi3, Nozhat Ahmadi4
1- Ph.D. student of History, Department of History, Shabester Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabester, Iran.
2- Assistant Professor, Department of History, Shabester Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabester, Iran , manijeh_sadri@yahoo.com
3- Associate Professor, Department of History, Faculty of Literature, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Associate Professor, Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran.
Abstract:   (292 Views)
Waqf is one of the oldest and most valuable human heritages that has been widely used among all ethnic groups, religions and civilized nations of the world and in different periods of Iranian history and has had lasting effects on societies. The issue of waqf and its formation and function have had a long history in the city of Ardabil. The city of Ardabil has had strategic and geopolitical value in terms of geographical location. During the Qajar period, although Ardabil did not have the prosperity and glory of the Safavid period, but people, especially Shiites, paid much attention to that city and until the end of the Qajar period, they went to visit the tomb of Sheikh Safi. The religious nature of Ardabil, especially as the origin of the head of the Safavid sect of Sheikh Safi al-Din and the location of his tomb, has had a great impact on the role and function of the waqf tradition in various religious, cultural, social and economic dimensions. The present study was done in a descriptive-analytical manner. To this end, libraries and archival documents and Waqfnameh were studied, reviewed and analyzed in the General Directorate of waqf and Charitable Affairs of Ardabil province. The present study seeks to answer the question: what socio-economic functions did the tradition and institution of waqf have in Ardabil during the Qajar period and what were the amount, types and uses of waqf in Ardabil? The analysis revealed how the socio-economic functions of waqf have been influenced by socio-historical events and intellectual currents of the Qajar period. Due to the religious nature of Ardabil, religious waqfs are the most common items in Waqfnameh. In addition, waqfs have been given to those people who have actually needed them. Also, new intellectual movements and the familiarity of Ardabili waqf doers with new ideas, including constitutionalism, have had a significant impact on the types of waqfs.
Keywords: Institution of Waqf, Ardabil, Function, Qajar, Waqfnameh.

The institution of endowment as an institution rooted in the history of Iran dates back to before Islam (Ahmadi, 43:1391). In the ancient period, Iranians paid attention to following their religion and doing good deeds and especially taking care of the poor in the society and to maintain the fire temple. have had offerings and endowments (Salimi Far 1370: 52). Waqf literally means imprisonment. Current charity is usually interpreted as endowment. Waqf is defined in Shari’i terms as confiscation of principle and surrender of benefit (Obeid Al-Kabisi, 1995: 64, Office of Scientific Cooperation and Elite Affairs.... 2015: 39, Qurashi, 1996: 236). What is meant by “confinement of the object” is actually separating the endowment from the property of the waqif and keeping the object from transfer, and the owner will no longer have any rights to that property (Saadat Mostafavi and Sedghi, 1393: 67). The economic definition of endowment can be considered as a change in the use of resources from individual exploitation to social benefit for the present and future generations (Mesbahi Moghadam et al., 2010: 99).
Awqaf played a very important role in the life of the cities and it spread so much that a special court was established for it, which is known as “Diwan of Ihbas” or “Diwan of Awqaf” (Abdul Sattar Osmani, 1376: 83). In the turbulent years between the extinction of the Safavid dynasty and the establishment of the Qajar dynasty, many properties were either taken over by the government or turned into private properties (Lambton, 1363: 128-124). In the traditional Qajar system, most of the civil institutions, even if the people involved in the government were the founders, functioned in the form of endowment and relied on a stable endowment system.
Question and Hypothesis: Considering the importance of endowment documents and the lack of attention to them, the present research seeks to answer this question: What process did the tradition and institution of endowment in Ardabil go through after the establishment of the Qajar period and the religious, social and economic functions of this institution within the scope of What were the developments during the period under investigation and what was the impact of current intellectual currents on endowments?
It seems that the functions of the endowment were influenced by social-historical events and intellectual currents of the Qajar period, especially the constitutionalism movement. With the spread of new knowledge and the intellectual transformation of the society, endowments in a new style were created, and this process was created in the constitutional period by creating endowments such as the endowment of a bath, the endowment of land for the construction ، expenses for the needy patients, and the establishment of schools in a new style and... new dimensions and It is applicable.
Research Documents: In this article, 84 dedication letters have been studied and analyzed The endowment letters were obtained from the document center of the General Department of Endowments and Charitable Affairs in Ardabil province, exclusively in Ardabil city, and their file numbers will be mentioned in the references. In the following, the endowment letters will be discussed and analyzed based on issues such as religious, economic, social functions, the gender of the waqfs, trustees, and the social status of the waqfs.

Analysis of Endowment Documents based on the Gender of the Benefactors
Explaining the role and social status of Ardabil women in the endowments of the Qajar era because it refers to the explanation of the presence of women in various political and social arenas in the Qajar and Pahlavi eras, which is important. Among the studied waqf letters, there are 11 waqf letters related to the waqf by Ardabil women According to Table 4, from the beginning of the Qajar period to the 1960s, we can see the expansion of the presence of women donors among the studied samples. It seems that in the process of the constitutional process, Iranian women also try to achieve their natural and social rights and engage in a wise and wide-ranging struggle in many ways and emphasize the realization of their demands in the social, cultural and political fields (Afari, 1377: 5). The process of describing women in the studied area has a forward tone, in accordance with the general trend of the country, and it indicates that the tradition of women’s endowments is gaining ground under the influence of the prevailing political, cultural and religious currents. Perhaps another reason for favoring and paying attention to endowment among women is related to the new political, social and cultural reasoning of Iranian society in the era of constitutionalism against the tradition and modernity of government and society and citizenship rights, and it has brought individual freedom for women. (Ajdani, 1386:7). In the deed of endowment on May 2, 1346, (file number: 3), a woman gives half of her dowry to her husband and donates the other half to a mosque in Ardabil. Ardabili women have given endowments such as agricultural land, land, house, yard, shop, village and residential building in numerous letters of endowment. The place where these endowments are spent is for building, repairing and spending the mosque, giving prayers, charity, and the expenses of the imam of the congregation, etc. In the deed of endowment on 20 Jumadi al-Thani 1326 AH, Khursheed bequeaths the profits from her endowment from the village of khoshkehRood (with a compromise with her niece) in Ardabil to be spent on charity and charity of Hazrat Seyyed al-Shahada, peace be upon him (file number: 1/ x) The proceeds from the waqf nameh of Jumadi al-Thani 1334 AH, Maryam the daughter of Muhammad Qoli, who owns a shop, should be spent on Imam Hossein’s funeral (case number: 16). In her letter of endowment dated 25 Jumadi al-Awwal 1341 A.H., Ruqiyeh Khanum Dokhtar Marhamat has assigned the income from her shops and residential building to carry her husband’s and daughter’s body to the highest honors (file number: 5/R).

Waqf is good and a valuable heritage with various religious, social and economic aspects, and the remaining waqf nameh are like valuable documents in order to explain the process and social system of their time. The importance of examining the dedication letters of the city of Ardabil, on the one hand, in terms of the social situation (the nature of Ardabil’s relationship with the Caucasus and the role of its market in the commercial relations of the region in the last century) has strategic value and political geography, and on the other hand, in terms of the role of Azerbaijan in the current of thought. Constitutionalism is very important as the center of the most important developments of the Qajar era at the macro level, this article explains the impact of the intellectual currents of an era on the cultural and social manifestations crystallized in the documents, and at the micro level, the results of this research showed that the new intellectual currents and the familiarity of endowments Ardabili with new ideas, including constitutionalism, have an impact on the type of endowments. It has made significant contributions, among them the expansion of endowments among women, the construction of hospitals, baths, and schools are among the clear examples of this issue. In other words, at the threshold of the society’s familiarity with new knowledge and the intellectual developments of the society, endowments in a new style were created, and this process was created in the constitutional period by creating endowments such as: endowment of the bath, endowment of land for the construction of the bath, expenses for the needy patients and the establishment of schools to New style, etc finds a new and practical dimension the impact of new ideas and new health teachings on endowment can be seen by comparing these two timelines In the waqf nameh of 3 Muharram 1286 AH, the type of reception in the ritual ceremony on Thursdays is specified as tea, coffee and hookah (file number: 10/). In case, in the deed of endowment on 8 Dhul-Qaida 1332 lunar year, the donor has bequeathed all the objects and tools, except for the Sarqalians, to be used in ta’ziyeh and benevolence of Hazrat Seyyed al-Shoheda (case number: 5/k). In fact, it can be seen that in the Qajar period, due to the increasing influence of religious beliefs and beliefs in the society, the neediness and poverty of the people of Ardabil due to the occurrence of natural and social events and crises, as well as the new intellectual currents of various people from guilds, owners and From businessmen to ordinary people, social endowments have been placed alongside religious endowments as a priority. Throughout history, religious figures have taken the majority of donors and endowment affairs and had a special place in this matter, but after the beginning of the constitution and the beginning of the new century, family responsibilities and especially trust in the classes and personalities Social has prospered more than before Examining the social status of the donors shows that merchants and tradesmen account for the most frequency. In general, it should be acknowledged that somehow all benefactors were part of the business and market class it is interesting to pay attention to the expansion of the culture of endowment by Ardabil women after the intellectual currents after the constitutionalism, which seems that in the process of the constitutional current, women appear more and more in social arenas to achieve their natural and social in terms of the social status of the benefactors, who were generally from the merchant class, the endowment of commercial buildings is the second most abundant after real estate and farms. It should also be added that in addition to these mentioned cases, endowment in the field of health, treatment, drinking water, as well as in the field of education in the process of time and in terms of social issues, gradually occupies a larger part of endowments.
Article number: 15
Keywords: Institution of Waqf, Ardabil, Function, Qajar, Waqfnameh.
Full-Text [PDF 1069 kb]   (109 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2022/02/8 | Accepted: 2022/07/30 | Published: 2023/02/20
1. -آجدانی، لطف‌الله، (1386). روشن‌فکران ایران در عصر مشروطیت. تهران: اختران.
2. -آفاری، ژانت، (1377). انجمن‌های نیمه‌سری زنان در نهضت مشروطه. ترجمۀ جواد یوسفیان، تهران: بانو.
3. -احمدی، نزهت، (1391). «نهاد وقف در دورۀ صفوی». مطالعات تاریخ اسلام، 4 (15): 56-41.
4. -امیری، پیمان، (1384). در جست‌وجوی هویت شهری اردبیل. تهران: وزارت مسکن و شهرسازی.
5. -جلیلی، امیرعلی، (1396). مجموعه قوانین دست‌نویس قانون مدنی. تهران: شریف، چاپ هفتم.
6. -دفتر همکاری‌های علمی و امور نخبگان شهید فهمیده منطقۀ شمال‌شرق، (1395). وقف علم و فناوری. مشهد: دبیرخانۀ کمیته یاوران وقف علم و فناوری خراسان رضوی، چاپ دوم.
7. -سعادت‌مصطفوی، سیدمصطفی؛ و صدقی، علی، (1392). «کارکردهای نهاد وقف در نظام ایران و مصر با تأکید بر فقه اسلامی». پژوهشنامۀ فقهی، 1 (2): 80-65.
8. -سلیمی‌فر، مصطفی، (1370). نگاهی به وقف و آثار اقتصادی-اجتماعی آن. مشهد: بنیاد پژوهش‌های اسلامی آستان قدس رضوی.
9. -عبدالستار‌عثمانی، محمد، (1376). مدینه اسلامی. ترجمۀ علی چراغی، تهران: امیرکبیر.
10. -عبدی‌بیگ نوید‌شیرازی، زین‌العابدین، (1390). صریح‌الملک (وقف‌نامۀ بقعۀ شیخ‌صفی‌الدین اردبیلی). تهران: چاپخانه بزرگ قرآن‌کریم.
11. -عبید‌الکبیسی، محمد، (1364). احکام وقف در شریعت اسلام. ترجمۀ احمد صادقی‌گلدر، مازندران: اداره کل حج و اوقاف و امور خیریه استان مازندران.
12. -قرشی، سید‌علی‌اکبر، (1364). قاموس قرآن. جلد هفتم، تهران: دار‌الکتب الاسلامیه، چاپ چهارم.
13. -کجباف،‌ علی‌اکبر؛ بیگ‌محمدی، پروین؛ و نورایی، مرتضی، (1398). «بررسی کارکردهای وقف شوشتر در دورۀ پهلوی ۱۳۰۴-۱۳۵۷». پژوهشنامۀ تاریخ‌های محلی ایران، 7 (2: پیاپی 14): 58-45.
14. -کریمیان، حسن؛ بهمنی، علیرضا؛ و شهابی، سید‌محمد‌رضا، (1395). «تأثیر وقف بر شکل‌یابی فضاهای شهری زمان قاجار در شهرری». باغ‌نظر، 13 (44): 98-89.
15. -گروه پژوهشی بنیاد ایران‌شناسی شعبۀ اردبیل (1393). مساجد دیرینۀ اردبیل. جلد اول و دوم، اردبیل: هادی‌زاده.
16. -لمبتون، آن کاترین، (1363). سیری در تاریخ ایران بعد از اسلام. ترجمۀ یعقوب آژند، تهران: امیرکبیر، چاپ سوم.
17. - مصباحی‌مقدم، غلامرضا؛ میسمی، حسین؛ عبدالهی، محسن؛ و قایمی‌اصل، مهدی، (1390). «وقف به‌مثابه منبع تأمین مالی خرد اسلامی الگوی تشکیل مؤسسات تأمین مالی خرد وقفی در کشور». پژوهش‌های رشد و توسعه اقتصادی، 2 (5): 103-93.
18. -مرکز اسناد اداره کل اوقاف و امور خیریه استان اردبیل، اداره اوقاف و امور خیریه شهرسنان اردبیل. وقف‌نامه‌ها.
19. ملک‌زاده، الهام؛ و افرافر، مرضیه، (1396). «کارکردهای موقوفات زنان از مشروطه تا پایان دورۀ پهلوی اول (نمونۀ پژوهی: موقوفات زنان تهران).» پژوهش‌های تاریخی دورۀ جدید، 3 (35): 257-271.
20. -نور‌احمدی، مهدی، (1389). «بررسی کارکردهای نهاد وقف در اقتصاد اسلامی». اندیشه صادق، 11 و 12: 10-1.
22. - Abdi Bey Navid Shirazi, Z. al-A., (1390) Saree al-Mulk (Waghf nameh of Sheikh Safiuddin Ardabili's tomb). Tehran: Great Quran Printing House (in Persian).
23. - Abdul Kabisi, M., (1364). Waghf rules in Islamic law. Translated by: Ahmad Sadeghi Goldar, Mazandaran: General Department of Hajj and Endowment and Charitable Affairs of Mazandaran Province (in Persian).
24. - Abdul Sattar Osmani, M., (1376) Islamic Medina. Translated by: Ali Cheraghi, Tehran: Amir Kabir (in Persian).
25. - Afari, J., (1377). Women's semi-secret associations in the constitutional movement. Translated by: Javad Yousefian, Tehran: Bano (in Persian).
26. - Ahmadi, N., (1391). “Foundation and endowment in the Safavid period”. Islamic History Studies, 4 (15): 56-41 (in Persian).
27. - Ajdani, L., (2006). Iran's intellectuals in the era of constitutionalism. Tehran: Akhtran (in Persian).
28. - Amiri, P., (2004). In search of the identity of Ardabil city. Tehran, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (in Persian).
29. - Document Center of the General Department of Awqaf and Charitable Affairs of Ardabil province, Department of Awqaf and Charitable Affairs of Ardabil city. Waghf nameh (in Persian).
30. - Jalili, A. A., (2016) Collection of handwritten rules of civil law. Tehran: Sharif, 7th edition (in Persian).
31. - Kajbaf, A. A., Beig Mohammadi, P. & Nouraei, M., (2018). “Investigation of the functions of Shushtar endowment in the Pahlavi period 1304-1357”. Journal of Local History of Iran, 7 (2: series 14): 45-58 (in Persian).
32. - Karimian, H.; Bahmani, A. R. & Shahabi, S. M. R., (1395). “The effect of endowment on the formation of urban spaces during the Qajar period in the city of Ray”. Bagh Nazar, 13 (44): 89-98 (in Persian).
33. - Lambton, A. C., (1363). An overview of the history of Iran after Islam. Translated by: Yaqub Azhand, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 3rd edition (in Persian).
34. - Malekzadeh, E. & Afrafar, M., (1396). “Women Endowments of the Constitutional Functions until the End of the First Pahlavi, Case Study: Female Benefactor of Tehran”. Historical Research, 9 (35): 257-271 (in Persian).
35. - Mesbahi-Moghadam, Gh.; Maithami, H.; Abdullahi, M. & Qaimi Asl, M., (2019). “Waghf as a source of Islamic micro-financing, a model for establishing micro-Waghf financing institutions in the country”. Scientific Research Quarterly, Economic Growth and Development Researches, 2 (4): 93-103 (in Persian).
36. - Office of Scientific Cooperation and Elite Affairs of Martyr Fahmideh, North Shahr Region, (2015). Science and Technology Endowment, Mashhad: Secretariat of Khorasan Razavi Science and Technology Endowment Committee, second edition (in Persian).
37. - Qureshi, S. A. A., (1364). Qur'an Dictionary. Vol. 7, Tehran: Darul Kitab Islamia, 4th edition (in Persian).
38. - Research group of Iranology Foundation, Ardabil branch. (1393). Ancient mosques of Ardabil. The first and second volumes, Ardabil: Hadizadeh (in Persian).
39. - Saadat Mustafavi, S. M. & Sedqi, A., (2012). “Functions of the Waghf institution in Iran and Egypt with an emphasis on Islamic jurisprudence”. , Specialized jurisprudential research journal, 1 (2): 65-80 (in Persian).
40. - Salimi Far, M., (1370). A Look at Waghf and Its Social-Economic Effects. Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi Islamic Research Foundation (in Persian).
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Karimnia J, Sadri M, Fasihi S, Ahmadi N. (2023). Elaboration and Analysis of Socio-economical Functions of the Institution of Waqf in Ardabil During the Qajar Period. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 6(22), 379-396. doi:10.30699/PJAS.6.22.379
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-698-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.21 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4568