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:: year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022, 5(18): 159-178 Back to browse issues page
Investigation and Analysis of Newly Siscovered Coins from Zolfaabad Site of Farahan
Mohammadreza Nemati
Assistant Professor, Pre-Islamic Department, Archaeological Research Institute, Cultural Heritage and Tourism Research Institute (RICHT), Tehran, Iran. , mohamadreza197@gmail.com
Abstract:   (489 Views)
Abstract
Coins are one of the most important findings in archaeological excavations, which are the best examples of historiography after geographical and historical sources and texts. By and analyzing the information contained in them, information about each region in various fields such as history, culture, economy, politics, religions and social conditions can be completed and more accurate judgments about the identity of that community can be obtained. In the archeological excavation of 2009, in the historical site of Zolpabad, Farahan, Markazi province, twenty complete coins and five cut scissors were found, which we will study in this research. The purpose of this study is to read the calligraphy,mint place, motifs and visual elements used in their decorations in order to achieve a connection with religion, language, calligraphy and their use in commercial and cultural exchanges. The present study is a historical research based on nature and method, descriptive-analytical research based on archaeological field and a library studies. The most important of questions in this research are: the coins discovered from the archeological excavations of Zulfabad What are period and which of the rulers? What are the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these coins and what are the visual elements governing the decorative motifs struck on them? And what does indicate the presence of these coins in this site  ? The results of this research show that the coins discoverd from Zolfaabad are belong to three early rulers of the Ilkhanid period, namely HulaGu, Abaqa Khan and Ahmed Tekuder. These coins have inscriptions in Uyghur and Kufic script, Religious inscriptions in geometric decorative frames consisting of circles and squares, floral motifs and squares are the most visual representations used in these coins. 
Keywords: Coin, Ilkhanid, Zolfaabad, Farahan.

Introduction
Coins are a written, valid document and an important source of information for examining any government’s culture, history, language evolution, beliefs, and economy. As the most enduring historical document, the coin is a manifestation of the various dimensions and aspects of a society’s life that reflect the industry, type of clothing, religious rites, and so on. Despite its economic function and facilitating the trade exchanges of societies, the coin has acted as a symbol and image of society and a transmitter of religious messages and concepts between societies (Thawaqeb et al., 2016: 67).
In terms of a variety of themes and motifs, the coins in this period of time have a lot of information that is very significant for researchers. The Mongols used the script and language of the conquered lands and the Uighur script in their coins. However, until the middle of the Ilkhanate government, the scripts of coins were to some extent influenced by the Mongolian culture, so the kings of this period wrote their names in the Uyghur language and script (Jafari Dehghi, 2013: 23).
Research Questions and Hypotheses: The most important questions of this research are: 1- Coins discovered from Zolfabad archeological excavations belong to which period and which Ilkhani governors? 2- What are the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these coins, and what are the visual elements governing the decorative motifs mint on them? 3- What is the role of discovering these coins in the studies of this area? The proposed hypotheses in answer to these questions are: The results of the study, research, and reading of the discovered coins show that these coins belonged to the governors of the early patriarchal period, that means, from the time of Hulagu to Ahmad Takudar, and they have inscriptions in Kufic and Uighur scripts and geometric patterns. 
Research Method: Therefore, the present study has been done by descriptive-analytical method and relying on field research and library studies.

Research Objectives
The main purpose of writing this article is to know the coins better and more accurately, read the scripts, decorations, place of beatening and accurate dating of the area through these coins.

Investigation and Analysis of Zolfabad Farahan Ilkhani Coins
Zolfaabad historical site is located in the south of Tafresh city, 3 km northeast of Farmahin city.

Coins of Holakokhan (663-654 AH)
The coins discovered from Holako in Zolfabad (Table 1) have the same design and writing. On the coin in decorative Kufic script inside the pearl circular frame is written “The Great Law of Hulagu Ilkhanum al-Mu’azzam”, and in the margin, based on similar samoles, it is written “Haza al-Darham” and contains the name of the mint and the year multiplied by the Kufic script inside the circular box. The text “La ilaha illa Allah wahada lashrikullah Muhammad Rasoolullah” is written on the back of the coin and inside the circular box. On one of the coins, the word “Allah” is added at the beginning of the inscription.

Coins of Abaghakhan (680-663 AH)
Four types of coins were obtained from Abaqan: The first type of coins are the coins on which the titles and names of the governor that is “Khaqanunarbar Abaqa Deld Kogoluxin” meaning “the coin was minted by Abaqa on behalf of the great house”, is written in the Uyghur script and inside a pearl-shaped circular box. On the back and inside the square box, the phrase “La ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasoolullah” is written in Kufic script. And outside the box at the top, mint coin location is written and, on the left, the year and the units digit of the year are given, on the lower part the tens digit and on the right side the hundreds digit of the year is written in Arabic.
The second type are coins on which, in a hexagonal frame with the Gereh design, the words “Qaan al-Adil” are written and the back of the coin is the same as coins type 1.
The third type is such that the phrase “Qaan al-Azam Abaqa Ilkhan al-Mu’azzam” is written on the coin and in the center of it inside a circular pearl frame. And in the margin on the coin, based on similar examples, the phrase “Hazal Derham”, the name of the mint and the year multiplied by the Kufic script are written inside the circular box. On the back of the coin in the center, inside the circle, the phrase “Lel Molk, La ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasoolullah Sallal lah Alayhe vas alam “ is written and in the margin inside the circular pearl frame a part of verse 26 of Surah Al-Imran is written. 
In the fourth type of coins, based on coin 73-A in the book of Ilkhans, on the coin and inside the circular box of pearls, the phrase “Qaan al-Azam Abaqa Ilkhan al-Mu’azzam, rival of Umm Khaldullah Malik Homa” is written. ]n the margin of the coin, the phrase Bismillaha and also, the type of coin, year and the place of minting is mentioned. On the back of the coin, inside the circular box, the phrase “La ilaha illa Allah ova Wahda Laashrikullahu Salah Allahu alayhi wa sallam.”  Is written, and the verse 33 of Surah Tawbah was in the margin. 

Coins of Sultan Ahmad Takudar (683-680 AH)
Only one coin was obtained from Ahmad Takudar in Zolfabad. The titles and name of Ahmad Takudar “Khaqano Narbar Ahmadun Deldekgoluxin” are written in the Uyghur script on the coin. and on the back of the coin, it is like the first type of Abaqa coins, and the date of minting, 681 AH, is engraved on the margin.

Scrap Coins
Five scrap coins were found from the coins discovered in Zolfabad area, of which one belonged to Hulakukhan and the other four pieces could not be read, and they were traded simply by weighing. Scrap coins were used in the past for two reasons: One is the transaction with weight, which is a certain amount to get the exact weight and a coin must be added to it to get the exact weight, and the second is the daily transaction for goods that are worth less than one dinar or dirham (Quchani, 2004: 89).

Conclusion
By conducting archaeological research in Zolfabad, valuable historical and cultural documents, including coins, architecture, and pottery, were obtained, which marked a part of the history of this region in the Ilkhani period. Like most coins of the Ilkhani period, these coins were dirham and made of silver; they were also the type of coins of the first and second periods of the Ilkhani period. In the first period, coins under the influence of pre-patriarchal coins and under the influence of rich Islamic culture used Islamic expressions to mint their coins in Kufic script. In the second period, the effects of Mongolian culture on coins increased. During this period, in addition to using Islamic expressions in Kufic script on the back of the coin, they wrote their titles and names in the official Mongolian language, the Uyghur language, on the coin. Coins show that Zulfabad existed from the beginning of the Ilkhani period and expanded and flourished during this period. The study of discovered coins shows that Zulfabad has been prosperous since the time of the first Ilkhani governor, Holaku, in the early second half of the seventh century AH. Most of the studied coins belong to the reign of Abaqa Khan (663-680 AH), the son of Holako, who are often minted in Tabriz. In addition to the coins, historical texts have also confirmed the presence of Abaqa in the Farahan region. Therefore, Zulfabad was more important in the Abaqa period and later lost its importance. Only one coin was obtained from Ahmad Takudar, and no coins were obtained from the governors after Takudar. Discovered coins show important documents related to the prosperity and historical, cultural, economic geography of Zolfaabad. Coins related to Abaghakhan by multiplying the commercial and political importance of Zolfaabad. In the coins related to Abagakhan, by minting in different regions, the importance and commercial and political prestige of Zolfabad in the era of Ilkhans and especially during the government of this governor is shown. According to the studies carried out from this period, the coin of Zulfabadabad has not been mentioned in numismatic sources and books. For this reason, it can be considered that during this period, especially after the Abaqa Khan period, Zolfabad was less important than other cities of this period in which coins were minted and they are mentioned a lot in historical texts, and it has not been as big as big cities.
Keywords: Coin, Ilkhanid, Zolfaabad, Farahan.
Full-Text [PDF 1390 kb]   (149 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2021/10/17 | Accepted: 2021/12/7 | Published: 2022/03/1
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Nemati M. Investigation and Analysis of Newly Siscovered Coins from Zolfaabad Site of Farahan. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2022; 5 (18) :159-178
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year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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