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:: year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2023, 6(22): 303-328 Back to browse issues page
Symbolism of Safavid Locks from the Perspective of Form and Role
Ali Zarei *1, Maryam Zohuriyan2, Alireza Hasani Abiz3
1- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran , azareie@birjand.ac.ir
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran
3- M. A. in Art Research, Azad University, Birjand branch, Birjand, Iran.
Abstract:   (297 Views)
The art industry of locksmithing, like other metal arts in Iran. Is a kind of reflection of the customs. Beliefs and traditions of the people of this land. This art is in a delicate fusion of aesthetics with steel and iron, and finally leads to a thoughtful accompaniment of art and craft. Therefore, it can be understood that we are facing a valuable category that has various visual, formal and aesthetic capacities. The purpose of this research, while categorizing locks and features of form and role, recognizing different capabilities and functions, is to decipher the patterns and traditions and beliefs around them. The main research questions and raised about, this is where the designs of Safavid locks were adopted? What are the formal and conceptual characteristics of the designs used in the locks of the Safavid periods? And to what extent is it related to the doctrinal aspects of the Safavid period? This research is of a fundamental type and is descriptive and analytical in nature. The method of collecting information will be field and library based on description analysis and history.  In this study, an attempt has been made to show that in Safavid era, locking, in addition to the protective aspect (practical), had a ritual aspect and had a direct and close relationship with The Islamic tradition. The mental concepts of the craftsman artist also played a role in a making the locks. Which often contain symbolic information, besides being made based on culture and custo. 
Keywords: Looking, A Simbel and Semiotics, Safavid Period.

The art of lockmaking, like other metal arts of Iran, is a kind of reflection of the customs, beliefs and traditions of the people of this land. This art is in a delicate blend of aesthetics with steel and iron and finally leads to a thoughtful companionship of art and industry. The first human locks were made of wood. The key that was discovered from the excavations of the “KhorsAbad” palace in Nineveh is the oldest part of the lockmaking profession obtained so far. This key is nearly four thousand years old and belongs to a wooden colony. According to the available evidence, Iranians have been familiar with locksmithing for a long time and are among the nations that have played a major role in the development and completion of this discipline, but there is little mention of it in Western sources. The lockmaking industry also continued to evolve during the Islamic era in Iran, and valuable examples were created both technically and aesthetically. The Safavid era is also considered a turning point in the history of Iran. At this time, the traditional artists of the Safavid community, especially the metalworking artists, also displayed the signs and symbols of the Shia religion and the national, mythological and Iranian identity in their works and created symbols with their national and religious identity. In the approach to the Iranian lock as an art, what is sometimes left out of consideration is the connection of the content of this art with the upper and mythical world and the use of symbolic elements in this field. Examining the relationship between the form of locks, mythology and semiotics and the use of symbols, in addition to defining the richness of the place of symbols and signs in different ages, also adds to the spiritual richness and external beauty of Iranian locks.

Research Method
The collection method in this research will be field and library based on description, analysis and history. In the library method, by using the written resources of the library, documents, the use of articles, the use of internet resources, dissertations, photography, after careful examination in terms of form, concept (symbol), content, classification and then examined  and we will study and research about them in the field method by referring to museums and taking photographs.

In this research, the issue of lockmaking industry in the Safavid era was first discussed and it was shown that lockmaking in this period is a continuation of the previous tradition. During this period, locks were made both fixed and movable. In this period, the locks were made of metal, gold, silver and brass. IN the continuation of the research, the design of motifs in the third Islamic period and from the 10th to the 12th half of the Ah period was discussed. In the following all patterns of locks were examined and divided into three categories: 1- inscription patterns, 2- slimy patterns, 3- geometric patterns. In order to analyze the reason for this design on the locks, the symbology of the text of the inscriptions, geometric motifs (circle, rectangle, square, and triangle) and types of plant motifs were discussed. Which showed that in addition to the aesthetics of motifs, the content of motifs is also very important. 

The form of the locks shows a series of certain beliefs and beliefs, for example magic lock (rammal locks) are included in the category of fortune-telling locks. Locks also have ritual uses and are used as vows and to fulfill needs, or as a means against unfortunate events. Various designs of locks are designed according to the prevailing culture, social and economic conditions, internal mechanism and locksmith equipment so that the consumer has more connection and motivation to use it. Due to the reasonable price of steel, its high resistance and also its availability, most of the locks that have been used and produced more in the regions of Iran are of this type. On the other hand, the political and social conditions prevailing in a region could affect the form and mechanism used in locks. During the Safavid era, the lock had a protective (practical) aspect and mostly a ritual aspect and had a direct and close relationship with the Islamic tradition. During the Safavid era, different forms of locks were made based on culture and customs, and special artists and craftsmen started the profession and art of lockmaking. In the investigations, it was found that steel locks have less decorations than other brass and bronze locks, and due to the movement and transfer of locks, which is a natural thing, the place of manufacture has not been mentioned, which is considered a problem. Some locks are functional and some are symbolic. In addition to the fact that the locks are made based on culture and customs, the artisan’s mentality and interiority also played a role in making the lock, and often the motifs contain symbolic and symbolic information. It has been observed that sometimes the symbols used are very similar, and most of them do not have any signification with the subject in terms of appearance, and its true meaning cannot be understood from their appearance.
Article number: 12
Keywords: Looking, A Simbel and Semiotics, Safavid Period.
Full-Text [PDF 1391 kb]   (106 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2021/09/3 | Accepted: 2021/12/25 | Published: 2023/02/20
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Zarei A, Zohuriyan M, Hasani Abiz A. (2023). Symbolism of Safavid Locks from the Perspective of Form and Role. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 6(22), 303-328. doi:10.30699/PJAS.6.22.303
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-629-en.html

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year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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