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:: year 6, Issue 21 (12-2022) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022, 6(21): 217-242 Back to browse issues page
Researching the Muzaffarids and Timurid Schools in Yazd Based on Historical Texts
Davood Emami Meybodi
Ph.D. student of Restoration and Revival of Historical Buildings and Textures, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Isfahan University of Arts, Isfahan, Iran , mehraz.emami@ymail.com
Abstract:   (145 Views)
Since during this era, Yazd involve less social vicissitudes and because of the training performance in the middle ages of Islam, the tradition of school building that started from the Seljuk dynasty in a quiet environment. Being away from security concerns and creating relative peace during the middle ages and the high acceptability of building a school has provided the emergence of its construction in the city of Yazd. Therefore, considering the numerous references to the schools of this era in Yazd historical texts and the absence of research on the architecture of the historical schools of this city, the article describes the building features of these ones. Answering this question is the purpose of this article: what are the features of school mentioned in the historical texts and what were components of spatialization and arrays of these schools? The research method of this article is based on historical documents and library studies. This is a historical-analytical research and its main reference is historical sources such as books of Ta’rikh-e Yazd (History of Yazd), Ta’rihk-e Jadid Yazd (New History of Yazd) and Ja’me’ Mofidi. Historical schools are explored in this article from the aspects of architecture, decoration, function and constructers. The results of this research show that schools in Yazd have local and indigenous features that were prevalent in this area, before Ilkhanate dynasty, and the influence of local architectural and decoration methods on the school building is undeniable according to historical sources. Schools have a lot in common with the architecture of mosques, houses and Khaneqahs (monasteries) considering that schools are usually used as a graveyard, these buildings can be classified as burial schools, and finally, various classes of people have played a major role in building these historical schools as founders.
Keywords: School Architecture, Muzaffarids, Timurid Era, Yazd.

In the 77-year rule of Muzaffarids dynasty (718-785 A.H.), in addition to the proceedings taken in the field of city development and increasing the area of battlement, basic measures were done in the field of the construction of religious schools and Khaneqahs (monasteries), so that it can be said that this region reached the glory of cultural prosperity within itself (Shamseh, 2006, P.31). Muzaffarids rule, whose beginning coincided with the end of the Ilkhanate era, should be considered one of the most powerful, best and most prosperous governments in the middle history of Iran, because at that time nowhere in Iran had cultural, social and economic development as much as their territory, and the importance of cultural affairs and attention to science and schools was so much that most possession of the desert region, means water aqueducts and gardens were dedicated to school, and this was apart from the devoted Bazaars and Caravanserais. (Mohammadzadeh & Razavi, 2011, P.21). It has been mentioned in various sources that nearly one hundred schools, two hundred Gonbadkhaneh (domes) and Khaneqahs (monasteries) as well as twelve mosques were built in the 8th century A.H. in Yazd city (Masahebi Naini, 1997, P.302), from the abundance of schools that were built in Yazd, Kerman, Shiraz and other cities during this period, it is possible to understand the level of people’s attention and dedication to the study of religious sciences. (Setoodeh, 1967,P.274). Muzaffarids kings, as well as the great personalities of this era, paid special attention to religious buildings such as mosques, schools and Dar-al Siadeh {a porch that is a gathering place for Seyeds and followers of Imam Ali (peace be upon him)}. In fact, the movement that started during the era of Khajeh Rashid- al Din with the construction of building such as “Gonbad Soltaniyeh” and “Rabَ –e Rashidi” ,other schools and religious places and the tradition of endowment became common in them; then in this era, it grew and expanded significantly, so that whenever there is talk of building a mosque, an order was given to build a school next to it, and endowments were also awarded to (Rais- al Sadat, et al., 2011,P.96). The cultural and artistic actions of Muzaffarids rulers caused the growth and development of Islamic culture and civilization, which provided the basis for its connection with later periods, so that the Timurid and Safavid eras, which are considered the glory the growth and development of Islam can be attributed to Muzaffarids proceedings. (Sarabadani, 2010,P.102). 
Questions of Research: 1- What architecture and arrays do the Yazd schools have, referring to historical texts? 2- What developments and functions do schools have?
Method of Research: The current research has explained the architecture of the historical schools of Yazd from the Ilkhanid to the Timiurid era with an analytical historical approach. In this research, the necessary historical information has been collected, especially from local historical texts such as Ta’rikh-e Yazd (History of Yazd), Ta’rikh Jadid Yazd (New History of Yazd) and Ja’me’ Mofidi, because these texts refer to different schools that were used in that era, but today there are no traces of some of those schools. Discussions such as examining architectural spaces, decorations, performance, development and school constructer are the subjects of this research.

Construction of Muzaffarids and Timurid Schools in Yazd continues the school-building tradition that began in the Kakuyids dynasty. The speed of school-building in Yazd during the Muzaffarid era is very intense, but it moderates during the Timurid dynasty. The concern of school-building in this era includes different strata of society from the aristocratic and royal class to religious scholars and all of them involved in this noble tradition. These schools were mostly built for the burial place of their founder after their death, and in order to legitimize it, the tomb was dome-shaped. For this reason, the Gonbadkhaneh (dome) is an integral part of Yazd schools, and in some ones, they are satisfied with the construction of this morsel. Parts such as elongated Soffeh (terrace), the pair of minarets on the façade, Tanabi (a large room in the middle of the building, without a window or door, surrounded by other spaces), and dome usually with an array, the central courtyard, the Baghtche-e Moshajar (a garden planted with different trees) at the end of the building are considered parts of the school spaces of this era. Utilizing the native structure and decoration methods in “Gonbadkhaneh and Tanabi”, and local architectural mechanisms all give these schools a regional display. The schools of this era with local and indigenous basis have adopted some of their architectural and array features from the era of “Kakuyids and Atabakan”. According to the remaining schools and with the help of historical texts, a general model for schools can be presented (Scheme 1). Schools like mosques and houses of this era, have a similar pattern, although there are common spaces between these functions. The existence of the elongated and lofty porch, which is usually located on the south facade, a small and compact yard,”Gonbadkhaneh or Tanabi” next to or behind the south porch, three-part divisions similar to mosques in the view facing the yard, the presence of a rear garden behind the porch or Gonbadkhaneh like the houses or Khaneqahs, creating a linear structure in spatial organization and many other cases, all confirm this paradigmatic similarity. The tradition and pattern of building these schools were forgotten after the abundance of school building in the Timurid era. The studies and researches of this article can be extended to the Safavid to Qajar era as well, so that a detailed understanding of the architecture and school building method in Yazd throughout history can be obtained through it.
Article number: 9
Keywords: School Architecture, Muzaffarids, Timurid Era, Yazd.
Full-Text [PDF 1125 kb]   (88 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2021/08/27 | Accepted: 2021/11/8 | Published: 2022/12/1
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Emami Meybodi D. Researching the Muzaffarids and Timurid Schools in Yazd Based on Historical Texts. Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022; 6 (21) :217-242
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-627-en.html

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