[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022, 5(18): 91-114 Back to browse issues page
Elements and Details Related to the Architecture of Troglodyte, Ab-e-Ask village, Larijan, Amol, Mazandaran Province
Narges Alaei Bakhsh1, Yaghoub Mohammadifar2, Hossein Sarhaddi-Dadian3
1- PhD Student in Archeology, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Research Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2- Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran. , mohamadifar@basu.ac.ir
3- Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
Abstract:   (533 Views)
Troglodytic Architecture like other branches of architecture has strong relationship with the culture of the people and their daily lives, which, although at first glance, seems simple and primitive, but in fact were built by people who have used all their intelligence and ability to build them.In Troglodyte part of Ab-Ask village, the people of the past have tried to create various architectural elements in this place to meet their daily needs, each of which plays an important role in the architecture of this part in a specific shape and image. Some of these elements were created inside the Troglodyte (rooms) and some outside the rooms.Indicative environmental elements that affect the plasticity of the village are geography,security,immortality and religion,which geography has the most impact on the form of Troglodyte compared to other factors. However, the influence of other factors cannot be ignored. What has been the present research in order to answer the question of the elements related to the lifestyle of people in these Troglodyte? Using field and descriptive case study method, in Troglodyte section of Ab-Ask village, to introduce and analyze architectural elements and details in these Troglodyte including: porch, stone bench, door, window, ledge and niche, stove, manger, and etc. At the end of this study, it will show that the past people of this region with high skills in interacting with nature have been able to create more than 170 Troglodyte in this place, which were studied in 5 groups. The orientation of the facade in this complex has been done from the south to the northeast, which has been a calculated choice in relation to the winds of the region and the direction of the sun and the chronology of the collection, according to the pottery and historical texts, is probable to the historical-Islamic period. 
Keywords: Troglodyte Architecture, Ab-e-Ask, Architectural Elements and Details, Immortality, Akhyeh.

This type of architecture has been created by hand, with the help of tools, in the heart of the soil or in the heart of rocks between dams and precipices. Residents in man-made cave architecture, like living in modern architecture, require the use of elements to meet their needs. They have created the elements of this architecture in the same way in the heart of the rocks and according to their needs, which is diverse. Certainly, the past residents of man-made cave architecture of Ab-Ask village, in order to meet their needs by creating and organizing the available space in the heart of the rock, have created elements and details along with the residential space; that knowing these elements, as indicators related to lifestyle, will lead to familiarity with the pattern and lifestyle of the inhabitants of this man-made cave village.
Man-made cave part of the village, which also has a significant area, has taken on new uses today due to new needs, and due to new uses, new elements have been added to the previous samples.
Objectives and necessity of research: Due to the evidence of many rock architecture in Larijan section of Amol city (due to geographical conditions) and the lack of sufficient research in relation to these works, therefore study of the rock formations of Ab-Ask Village can be used as a prelude to a better understanding of this type of architecture and also, the role of rock architecture in rural tourism planning in Larijan section is very important
Research questions and hypotheses: What were the elements related to the lifestyle of the people in these man-made caves? It seems that the wind direction of the region and the direction of sunlight have had a significant effect on the direction of the entrance of this man-made cave.

Areas of villages in Larijan district in Mazandaran province, among dams and precipices with a length of approximately 45 km, from the summer village of Plour to the village of Punjab, along the Haraz transportation road, have a variety of man-made cave architecture (Mohammadi Nashli and Rostamnejad Nashli , 2013: 2) which in this article we are researching man-made caves of Ab-e-Ask village.
Adjacent to the Haraz River, which has permanent water, at the foot of Damavand Mountain, next to numerous mineral springs and travertine makers, and near the coal mine, more than 170 units of man-made cavities inside hardened volcanic sediments (harder than soil and softer than stone) but dominated the plains and adjacent lands created by the peoples of the past.
These man-made caves are made on the walls of valleys with a height of 30 to 100 meters, all of which have a special door and hole due to the slope and climatic and perhaps religious reasons, which usually warm in winter and cool in summer in choosing the side. In these settlements, the number of openings is generally small and often only one entrance is enough, although in some, man-made caves, in addition to the opening, a hole is installed in the east direction.
Various elements have been used in man-made section of Ab-e-Ask village inside and outside the living space, and here we have tried to introduce and their possible function. Porch, parf, shelter or shelter of wind and cairn from external elements, hall, skylight window, niche, recess, jug, mortar, stove, manger and drinking fountain, room and stake including internal and at the entrance elements, stairs and platform are elements that are seen both outside and inside the space of these man-made caves, are mentioned in this article.

This collection includes more than 170 units of man-made cave that have been studied in five groups: residential structures, livestock-residential structures, guard structures, possibly ritual-burial structures and structures with unknown use. Chronology of the collection According to the evidence in the historical-Islamic period up to the present century, it is possible that during this period, this collection has also expanded. However, 90% of the units in this collection are still used in fodder ponds and warehouses. Pointing out that about 50% of the collection is related to the present century that people have naturally built existing structures to store fodder and keep their livestock and according to the type of rock.
7 units out of total 170 units identified in the collection were debris-removed that the different feature of these 7 units is the presence of a pounded floor with plaster, which has probably been seen in the side walls in addition to the floor. A number of units in this collection are associated with artificial architecture, which is clearly related to the surviving artificial architecture of the contemporary century and some recent years.
Existence of different architectural elements inside and outside the spaces has been a necessity in order to meet the daily needs of the residents, that in this article, a brief introduction to the elements and interior design, which were eventually created simply by working on stone and natural bedding, was obtained.
In this collection, the existing architectural elements as inextricably intertwined with other elements, such as walls, floors, ceilings are parts of the space. Each of these elements is embedded in different sizes and dimensions depending on the location and available space; due to this, we see a great variety in the architectural elements of this collection that the elements of each space are specific to that space. The presence of a natural substrate has made it possible to add new elements to the collection over time. These elements are created in the desired space due to the necessity of daily life, and that is why there is not much multiplicity about these elements.
Keywords: Troglodyte Architecture, Ab-e-Ask, Architectural Elements and Details, Immortality, Akhyeh.
Full-Text [PDF 1563 kb]   (121 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2021/06/2 | Accepted: 2021/11/16 | Published: 2022/03/1
1. - ابوت، (1226). گزارش سفر کنسول ابوت به سواحل بحرخزر در طول اول نوامبر 1847 تا 17فوریه 1848. ترجمۀ احمد سیف، اسناد وزارت امورخارجۀ انگلستان: محرمانه، شمارۀ 136.
2. - بهشتی، سید محمد، (1394). «دیباچه». اولین همایش معماری دست‌کند: کرمان 14 - 12 اردیبهشت 1391.
3. - پورمهراب، غلامحسین؛ ذاکر‌سلطانی، نادر؛ و اشرفی، مهناز، (1394). «عناصر و مبلمان دست‌کند روستای تاریخی میمند». اولین همایش معماری دست‌کند: کرمان 14 - 12 اردیبهشت 1391، صص:137_171
4. - حسن‌پور، عطا؛ دلفان، فاطمه؛ و حیدری، ماریا، (1394). «بررسی دست‌کندهای غار اراز خرم‌آباد». فصلنامۀ اثر، شمارۀ 70، صص: 40-19.
5. - حسن‌پور، عطا؛ دلفان، فاطمه؛ و حیدری، ماریا، (1394). «غار کوگان، اعجابی از هنر صخره‌ای لرستان». اولین همایش معماری دست‌کند: کرمان 14 - 12 اردیبهشت 1391، صص: 245_271
6. - حقیقت‌نائینی، غلامرضا، (1394). «زمینه‌های کل‌گیری سکونت‌گاه‌های دست‌کند و تأثیر آن بر ابعاد کالبدی». اولین همایش معماری دست‌کند: کرمان 14 - 12 اردیبهشت 1391. صص:291_299
7. - حمزه‌لو، منوچهر و میراسکندری، سیدمحمود (1381). «قلعه و غار کرفتو»، فصلنامه اثر، شمارۀ 33-34. صص: 304-278.
8. - دِمورگان، ژاک، (1338). هیئت علمی فرانسه در ایران (مطالعات جغرافیایی). ترجمۀ کاظم ودیعی، تبریز: انتشارات چهر.
9. - راعی‌اسکی، مصطفی، (1387). اسک در گذر تاریخ : جغرافیایی، تاریخی، مذهبی، فرهنگی، سیاسی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی. تهران: انتخاب.
10. - رضائی‌نیا، عباسعلی، (1396). «صورت ایوان در معماری ایرانی، از آغاز تا سده‌های نخستین اسلامی». مطالعات معماری ایران، شمارۀ 11، بهار و تابستان. صص: 144-125.
11. - سجادی، علی؛ و اسدی، محمدرضا، (1398). «بررسی ویژگی‌های تاریخی، فنی و کاربردی معماری صخره‌ای غار کوگان پل‌دختر لرستان». چهارمین همایش ملی باستان‌شناسی ایران، بیرجند: 15-16 آبان. https://civilica.com/doc/97881.
12. - ستوده، منوچهر، (1335). از آستارا تا استرآباد، شامل بناها و آثار تاریخی مازندران غربی. جلد سوم، تهران: سلسله انتشارات انجمن آثار ملی.
13. - صالحی، مانا؛ عبدالحسینی، جواد؛ و ارمغانی، ارسطو، (1395). «بررسی معماری زیرزمینی شهر اویی (نوش‌آباد)». اولین کنفرانس ملی رویکردهای معماری و شهرسازی پیش‌رو: کرمانشاه 27-28 مرداد، صص: 1-11.
14. - فخرآبادی، امیر، (1391). «اوویی شهری دست‌کند در فلات ایران». مجلۀ رشد آموزش جغرافیا، دورۀ27، شمارۀ 2، زمستان. صص: 27-24.
15. - قصیدیان، الهام ؛ رمضان‌پور، حسین؛ مرادیان، معصومه؛ و حیدری‌گوران، سامان، (1399). «پناهگاه صخره‌ای کیاسر، در جست‌وجوی کهن‌ترین سکونت‌گاه‌های انسان در مازندران». تاریخ و باستان‌شناسی مازندران، پاییز، شمارۀ 3، صص: 76 تا 85
16. - کارگر، علی؛ خلیلی، سعید؛ و خلیلی، کیامهر، (1397). «واکاوی حس مکان در آفرینش و پایداری معماری دست‌کند روستای کندوان». معماری‌شناسی، سال 1، شمارۀ 4، دی، صص: 1-12.
17. - کارلاسرنا، (1362). سفرنامۀ مادام کارلاسرنا، ترجمۀ اصغر سعیدی، تهران: چاپ نقش‌جهان.
18. - گرجی‌مهلبانی، یوسف؛ و سنائی، المیرا، (1389). «معماری هم‌ساز با اقلیم روستای کندوان».مسکن و محیط روستا، دورۀ ۲۹، شمارۀ ۱۲۹، صص: 19-2.
19. - لباف‌خانیکی، میثم، (1395). «سیر تحول منظر فرهنگی میمند کرمان با تکیه بر مطالعات تاریخی و یافته‌های باستان‌شناختی». مطالعات باستان‌شناسی، دورۀ 8، شمارۀ 2، پاییز و زمستان، صص: 130-111.
20. - محمدی‌نشلی، جمشید؛ و رستم‌نژاد‌نشلی، علی، (1392). «معرفی و بررسی غار‌های دست‌کند کافر‌کِلی بخش لاریجانِ شهرستان آمل». همایش ملی باستان‌شناسی ایران، دست‌آوردها، فرصت‌ها و آسیب‌ها، دانشکدۀ هنر دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند.
21. - معروفی، اسماعیل؛ افخمی، بهروز؛ حسینی‌نیا، مهدی؛ گراوند، افراسیاب؛ و طهماسبی، فریبرز، (1397). «بررسی و مطالعۀ تطبیقی نقوش صخره‌ای عقربلو با نقوش صخره‌ای غار کرفتو». مطالعات تاریخ فرهنگی، پژوهش‌نامۀ انجمن ایرانی تاریخ، سال 10، شمارۀ 7، صص: 161-133.
22. - مهدی‌کندی، م.، (1351). نظری به روستاهای مازندران. تهران: چاپ پیام.
23. - محمدی‌فر، یعقوب؛ همتی‌ازندریانی، اسماعیل؛ ملازاده، کاظم؛ و خاکسار، علی، (1396). «مدیریت آب در مجموعه معماری دست‌کند زیرزمینی ارزانفود-همدان». مرمت و معماری ایران، سال 7، شمارۀ 14، پاییز و زمستان، صص: 101-91.
24. - نوری، مصطفی؛ و سرایلو، اشرف، (1388). «سفرنامۀ اعتضادالسلطنه به لاریجان». پیام بهارستان، سال 2، شمارۀ 6، صص: 299-358
25. - همتی‌ازندریانی، اسماعیل؛ و خاکسار، علی، (1394). «بررسی و تحلیل مجموعۀ معماری دست‌کند زیرزمینی سامن ملایر». مطالعات هنر بومی، شمارۀ 4، پاییز و زمستان، صص: 38-23.
26. - همتی‌ازندریانی، اسماعیل؛ خاکسار، علی؛ و شعبانی، محمد، (1396). «بررسی و تحلیل سفال‌های دورۀ اسلامی مجموعۀ معماری دست‌کند زیرزمینی سامن ملایر». پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران، شمارۀ 13، دورۀ 7، تابستان، صص: 206-189.
28. -Abbott, (1848). Report on Abbott Consul's voyage to the shores of the Caspian Sea between November 1, 1847 and February 17, 1848. Translated by: Ahmad Seif, British Foreign Office Documents: Confidential, No. 136, (in Persian).
29. - Beheshti, M., (2015). “Introduction”. The first man-made cave architecture conference: Kerman, May 4-13, 2012, (in Persian).
30. - Demorgan, J., (1959). French Faculty in Iran (Geographical Studies). Translated by: Kazem Vadiei, Tabriz: Chehr Publications, (in Persian).
31. - Fakhrabadi, A., (2013). “Ouvi, a man-made cave city in Iran Plateau”. Journal of the Development of Geography Education, Vol. 27, No 2, Winter, Pp: 24-27, (in Persian).
32. - Georgian Mahlabani, Y. & Sanai, E., (2011). “Architecture compatible with the climate of Kandovan village”. Housing and rural environment, Vol. 29, No. 129, Pp: 2-19, (in Persian).
33. - Ghasidian, E.; Ramezanpour, H.; Moradian, M. & Heidari Goran, S., (2020). “Caesar Rock Shelter, in search of the oldest human settlements in Mazandaran”. History and Archeology of Mazandaran, No. 3, P: 7, (in Persian).
34. - Hassanpour, A.; Delfan, F. & Heidari, M., (2015). “Study of man-made of Araz Caves in Khorramabad”. Quarterly, No. 70, Pp: 19-40, (in Persian).
35. - Hassanpour, A.; Delfan, F. & Heidari, M., (2015). “Kogan Cave, a Wonder of Lorestan Rock Art”. An article presented at the first man-made cave Architecture Conference: Kerman, May 4-12, 2012, (in Persian).
36. - Haghighat Naeini, Gh., (2015). “Background of generalization of man-made cave settlements and its effect on physical dimensions”. An article presented in the first man-made cave architecture conference: Kerman, May 4-13, 2012, (in Persian).
37. -Hamzeh Lou, M. & Miraskandari, M., (2002). “Castle and Cave of Kerfto”. Quarterly, No. 33-34, Pp: 278-304, (in Persian).
38. - Hemmati Azandariani, I. & Khaksar, A., (2015). “Study and Analysis of Saman Malayer Underground Man-made cave Architecture Collection”. Native Art Studies, No. 4, Pp: 23-38, (in Persian).
39. - Hemmati Azandariani, I.; Khaksar, A. & Shabani, M., (2017). “Investigation and analysis of pottery of the Islamic period of Saman Malayer underground man-made cave architecture collection”. Archaeological Research of Iran, No. 13, Vol. 7, Pp: 189-206, (in Persian).
40. - Kargar, A.; Khalili, S. & Khalili, K., (2018). “Analysis of Sense of Place in the Creation and Sustainability of man-made cave Architecture in Kandovan Village”. Architecture, Vol. 1, No. 4, Pp: 2-19, (in Persian)
41. - Labaf Khaniki, M.m, (2015). “The evolution of Meymand Kerman cultural landscape based on historical studies and archaeological findings”. Archaeological Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Pp: 111-130, (in Persian).
42. - Mohammadi Nashli, J. & Rostamnejad Nashli, A., (2013). Introduction and study of man-made caves of Kafer Keli in Larijan section of Amol city, a paper presented in the National Archaeological Conference of Iran, achievements, opportunities and damages, Faculty of Arts, Birjand University, Birjand, (in Persian).
43. - Maroofi, I.; Afkhami, B.; Hosseini Nia, M.; Garavandeh, A. & Tahmasebi, F., (2018). “Comparative study of Scorpio rock motifs with rock carvings of Kerfto Cave”.Cultural History Studies, Iranian Journal of History Association, Vol, 10, No. 7, Pp: 133-161, (in Persian)
44. - Mehdi Kandy, M., (1972). A review of Mazandaran villages. Payam Publication, (in Persian).
45. - Mohammadifar, Y.; Hemmati Azandariani, I.; Mollazadeh, K. & Khaksar, A., (2017). “Water Management in Arzanfood Underground man-made cave Architecture Complex - Hamedan”. Iranian Restoration and Architecture, Vol. 7, No. 14, Pp: 91-101, (in Persian).
46. - Nouri, M. & Sarayloo, A., (2009). “The travelogue of Etezadolsaltaneh to Larijan”. Payam Baharestan, Vol. 2, No. 6, Pp: 299-358, (in Persian).
47. - Pourmehrab, Gh. H.; Zakir Soltani, N. & Ashrafi, M., (2015). “Elements and furniture of man-made cave in Meymand historical village”. An article presented in the first man-made cave architecture conference: Kerman May 4-12, 2012, (in Persian).
48. - Rai Aski, M., (2008). Ask through history: geographical, historical, religious, cultural, political, social, economic, selection. Tehran, (in Persian).
49. - Rezaeinia, A. A., (2017). “The Face of the Porch in Iranian Architecture, from the Beginning to the First Centuries of Islam”. Iranian Architectural Studies, No. 11, Spring and Summer, Pp: 125-144, (in Persian).
50. - Sajjadi, A. & Asadi, M. R., (2019). “Study of historical, technical and practical features of the rock architecture of Kogan Cave, Pol Dokhtar, Lorestan”. Article presented at the 4th National Conference of Archaeology of Iran, Birjand, November 15-16, https://civilica.com/doc/978811, (in Persian).
51. - Salehi, M.; Abdolhosseini, J. & Armaghani, A., (2015). “Study of underground architecture in Ouvi city (Noshabad)”. Paper presented in the first national conference on architectural and urban planning approaches: Kermanshah, August 18-28, (in Persian).
52. -Sotoudeh, M., (1956). From Astara to Astarabad, including monuments and historical monuments of western Mazandaran. Vol. 3, Tehran: National Monuments Association Publications, (in Persian).
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alaei Bakhsh N, Mohammadifar Y, Sarhaddi-Dadian H. Elements and Details Related to the Architecture of Troglodyte, Ab-e-Ask village, Larijan, Amol, Mazandaran Province. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2022; 5 (18) :91-114
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-581-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.21 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4419