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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(3): 35-52 Back to browse issues page
The Architecture Technology in Acceramic Neolithic Period (Kapargah Architecture)
Hassan Akbari
M.A. in Archaeology, University of Tehran , hassanakbari181@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (10170 Views)
Abstract
Despite of studies about acceramic Neolithic period in west of Asia (especially Levant area), little has been done archaeological activities related to this period in Central Zagros. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time. In Central Zagros, Seimare River is the largest river. The Seimare archeology project was done based on surveys and excavations archaeology in dam basin of Seimare. The Dangjoun from sites was excavated in related to Seimare archeology project in year of 2010. In total, 70 square meters was excavated from this site that led to discovery three phase of settlement. In Dangjoun wasn’t achieved of terra cotta ware, but architectural remains were achieved from all trenches with different quality. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. This study was done with a fundamental purpose, and method of data amassment in this research is library – field method. In this research, in addition to the introduction and description architecture of Dangjoun, the complete descriptive has been done about architecture of A and B periods of acceramic Neolithic. In this regard have been explained specific architectural features of each period in Anatolia, Syria and Northern Zagros (in Iraq). Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and …, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period? Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods.
Keywords: Acceramic Neolithic Period, Seimare, Central Zagros, Architecture.

Introduction
In the history of human culture, the Neolithic period is of particular importance. The Neolithic period is including from 11000 to 7000 BC. The human societies has been experienced many changes in this period. Some of the most important changes in this period as: Starting and developing agriculture and animal husbandry, permanent establishment, population increase, long distance commerce as obsidian, skill in the production of stone tools, beginning of metallurgy, production of pottery, use of fire in the industry, indication of personal ownership of objects, accumulation of wealth and beginning of social inequalities, construction of public and religious buildings (Hole, 2000: 192; Byrd, 1994). However, the most significant consequence of Neolithic revolution was emergence of a compound economy with emphasis on domestic plants and animals (Hole, 1984). On the other hand, production of pottery in this period is led to cleave Neolithic period into two periods: Acceramic and ceramic Neolithic. According to the hints top, the main concept of Neolithic period is with food production, appearance of village, and architecture. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time (Zeder, 1999). The Central Zagros because of the strategic position and placing in between areas like Mesopotamia, Khuzestan, Azerbaijan and central parts of Iran, and also Due to the appropriate environmental facilities in this area as: fertile fields, good agricultural lands, abundance of water resources, … has always been a concern for human societies for a long time. Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and…, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period?

Research findings
The Kapargah is located in Lorestan and part of Kuhdasht County and Konani region. The nearest city to this site is Badreh city in Ilam Province. The Kapargah is located in Cham Ghoileh valley and for difficult transit this valley, in this area is living of wild animals. In terms of size, the Kapargah is small size and about 2000 square meters. Around this site rarely is obtained stone tools. This site is to form of rectangle and has 70 meters long and 30 meters wide. The Kapargah isn’t located on the floor of the plain, and with the passage of time have been created sediments about 6 meters on the site. The distance of this site to the river is about 50 meters, and surrounding lands are very prone to farming and animal husbandry. It seems, primary village because of located in between mountainous plains has been built on a gentle slope. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. Workshop 1 was created with 5 m long and wide, and relative to workshop 2 had less architecture. All the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar. In this site was discovered three phases of architecture that hasn’t been seen structural difference between phases. Workshop 2 first was created with 3 m long and wide and then developed, and extent it was reached to 54 square meters. In this workshop too, discovered three phases of architecture that all the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar.

Conclusion
Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods. The difference in architecture in two trenches this site probably because it is workshop 1 has been created in around of the village and this area has been temporary residential homes. Two warehouses in this workshop show each home has its own warehouse. The climate situation of this area has been influenced the construction of houses. Because of the air temperature above zero in this area, the walls aren’t thickened.
Keywords: Acceramic Neolithic Period, Seimare, Central Zagros, Architecture.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/07/23 | Accepted: 2018/07/23 | Published: 2018/07/23
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Akbari H. The Architecture Technology in Acceramic Neolithic Period (Kapargah Architecture). Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (3) :35-52
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