The reign of the Qajar dynasty is one of the most important eras of the evolution of Iranian art, especially in the form of murals. In the geographical area of Iranian cities, the connection between religion and art according to the Shiite religion of the society of this era is obvious. In the present article, an attempt has been made to identify the effective factors of geographical territory in the way of reflecting Shiite themes in the mentioned works in the important Shiite cities of the Qajar era. The authors seek to answer these questions: What are the influential factors of the geographical territory in the way of reflecting Shiite themes in the murals of religious Monuments of the Qajar era? Which cities of the Qajar era had the greatest influence in the way of reflecting Shiite themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era? The present research is developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. The method of collecting information was library and field and the method of qualitative analysis. Findings indicate that the effective factors of geographical territory in how these murals are reflected are included in these sections: the refuge of the Prophet’s family in mountainous areas, the rule of the Zaidi Alawites, the rule of Sadat Marashi, the formalization of the Shiite religion in the Safavid era, religious architecture Iran, the support of princes for Shiite art, pilgrimage to places on pilgrimage. The results of the research show that the geographical territory of each religious building is a link between indigenous architecture and the religious view of Islam to the Shiite religion.
Keywords: Qajar, Religious Monuments, Murals, Qajar Politics, Shiite Themes.
Statement of the problem: The historical investigation of the developments of the Qajar period is very important due to the scope and intellectual, cultural, religious and political diversity and due to the continuity of its results until the present day. Religious buildings are one of the most basic structural and formative elements of cities. The continuity of the presence of religious buildings in the shape of the city has been known since the dawn of the first cities and has been intertwined with the life of the cities until today. In the historical context of Iranian cities, religious buildings as an important use with various functions have played a basic role in shaping urban spaces and hierarchies, and the link between religion, culture and politics with art is found in different spaces in Islamic cities. Examining these relationships with works of art is a topic that provides a wide field for research. Islam in general and Shia religion in particular are the creators of unique works of art in the field of architecture, such as takayas and saqanfars. Religious mural painting in connection with the formalization of Shi’ism in the beginning of the Safavid period and in the Qajar era, because the Qajar rule is one of the most important periods in the evolution of Iranian art, especially in the form of mural painting. In this era, due to developments after the constitution, religious painting was mainly limited to folk paintings. This particular type of mural painting is aimed at popular artists. These artists have acquired the themes of their works from popular beliefs and beliefs.
Objectives and Necessity of the Research: The research was carried out with the aim of knowing the effective factors of the geographical territory in the way of reflecting the themes in the murals of the religious buildings of Qajar cities. In this research, the wall paintings of the religious buildings of the mosque, the saqanfars and the tekke of the important Qajar cities are examined with an emphasis on the Shia themes of folk art, as well as the study of the role of the Shia religion and its development in mural painting under the influence of historical and geographical conditions in the Qajar period, which is a necessity in the study. The valuable effects of its wall paintings are noted.
The current research is developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. The method of collecting information is library and field. The most important tool for collecting information is the preparation of an ID card, the use of tables and forms made by researchers, observation cards and visual documents. The research community, among dozens of murals in numerous religious buildings, 14 murals from among 6 historical and religious monuments of Qajar era Iran from the provinces of Mazandaran (2 murals from Babylon and 4 murals from Babolsar), Kermanshah (6 murals) and Fars (2 murals). It is purposefully selected. The authors have examined the most representative samples in a selective manner (non-probability sampling) based on the factor of Shia religion and geographical location using the qualitative data analysis method.
First, the themes and factors of the emergence of numerous themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era are discussed. Then, the effective factors of the geographical territory in the way the themes are reflected in the murals of the religious buildings of this era are evaluated and read. In this essay, an attempt is made to study the wall paintings of Qajar era religious buildings, which represent a relationship between art and geographical location, with a methodical scientific and structural approach.
Factors have caused the emergence of numerous religious and non-religious themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era. Among these factors can be mentioned: the shock of the rule of the rulers, the tendency to ancient Iran, relations with Europe, the constitutional movement, the need for spiritual space, the need for a religious hero, alignment with the function of religious buildings, belief in propaganda and dissemination Shiite religion, messaging based on Quranic stories and narrations, instruction and lessons from the life events of the Imams.
Shiism as one of the Islamic religions was created almost at the same time with the advent of Islam. The main claim of this religion was the legitimacy of the succession of Imam Ali (AS) after Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), which according to the followers of Shiism, the Prophet had publicly announced this issue in the event of Ghadir Khumm in the last year of his life. This religion has always been in the minority in terms of the number of followers and this issue has undergone serious changes in its continuation until today. (Kowsari, 1390: 9 and 35) One of the influential factors in the emergence of various themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era is the geographical territory; This factor also has factors that have been effective in the way of reflecting the Shiite (religious) and non-religious themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era (Table 1). Factors such as attention and importance as the origins of ancient Iranian art and the increase of trade and cultural exchanges and correspondence with other nations by placing some cities on the trade route are factors that have been effective in reflecting non-religious themes, but in this article the most important themes. Shiites are being explored.
The geographical territory of every religious building is the connection of native architecture with the ritual attitude of Islam to Shiism, so the wall paintings of religious buildings of the Qajar era were created from the ritual transformations of Shiism and influenced by the culture and political developments of the society of their time. According to the findings of the research, the answers to the questions can be stated as follows:
What are the effective factors of geographical territory in the way themes are reflected in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era? One of the influential factors in the appearance of numerous themes in the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era is geographical territory, this factor also has factors that have been effective in the way of reflecting the themes of the murals of religious buildings of the Qajar era. The most important factors include the following: decisive historical events (refuge of the Prophet’s family to the mountainous areas from the evil of the Caliphs of Baghdad, the presence of the Zaydi Alawites and the establishment of their government in 250 AH, the rule of Sadat Marashi of the Shiite religion in the 8th and 9th centuries AH ., the formalization of the Shiite religion in the Safavid era, Islamic-Shiite religious architecture in Iran), princes’ support of Shiite art in prominent cities, pilgrimages to religious places with some cities being on the pilgrimage route, the manifestation of folk beliefs of different cities on murals. s, attention and importance as the origins of ancient Iranian art, the influence of lithographic books and the increase of commercial and cultural exchanges and correspondence with other nations with the location of some cities on the trade route (Table 1).
What was the way of reflecting Shiite themes in the murals of religious buildings in different cities of the Qajar era? The manifestation of Shia themes and topics in all the murals of different cities was not the same, according to the nature and climatic characteristics of that city, they were a more suitable source and platform for the manifestation of such themes. For example, the cities of Mazandaran, Gilan and Kermanshah have been effective in reflecting Shiite themes in Qajar era wall paintings, considering the conditions of their geographical territory.
Wall paintings are the borrowers of Shia spiritual heritage among the common people and have high values of Shia anthropology and sociology. All the murals are like a valuable treasure that shows the life and livelihood of the native people and contains their culture, habits, customs and beliefs. It is hoped that by identifying and introducing these works, they will respect their roots and gems more and respect themselves and their origin. Let’s come back.