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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022, 5(18): 31-48 Back to browse issues page
Investigation and Recognition of Gray Artefacts in Chegardak Bronze Age Using Petrographic, XRD and SEM-EDX Methods
Sayyed Mohsen Haji Sayyedjavadi 1, Yasin Sedqi2, Mohammad Reza Sheykhi3, Najmeh Khatoun Miri4
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Payam-e-Noor University, Tehran, Iran. , hajsayyedjavady@pnu.ac.ir
2- Master of Archeology, Department of Conservation and Restoration of the Cultural Institute of Museums of the Foundation for the Underprivileged, Tehran, Iran.
3- Historical Restoration Expert, Department of Historic Restoration, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
4- Instructor, Department of Restoration of Historical Monuments, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
Abstract:   (644 Views)
Abstract
Gray pottery is one of the most significant and important cultural artifacts discovered from the Bronze Age sites in the southeast of the Iranian plateau. This style of pottery has been obtained in a very large amount from the Chagardak Asr-e-Faraghi site of Chah Hashem Plain in Baluchistan, which has so far been far from the views and studies of archeology, archeology and artistic history of the southeast of the Iranian plateau. The main question of this research is about how to make and decorate these pottery. It seems that pottery making was developed in this area and they had different construction methods. The present research has been done by analytical-experimental method and based on laboratory studies. The studied objects belong to the Museum of Southeastern Iran. Measures such as documenting the condition of objects as well as sampling necessary for laboratory tests have been performed at the restoration workshop of the Museum of Southeastern Regions of Zahedan. Then, using thin section petrographic studies (OM) and instrumental analyzes with SEM-EDX and XRD methods, the data are analyzed in order to achieve the research objectives. In this study, 11 samples of gray pottery related to Chegardak area, which were obtained from emergency excavations in 2018, were performed. All pottery was wheeled and gray in dark to light and with different thicknesses but in the range of thin pottery. Archaeological studies on pottery suggest a similar composition, but show that different production methods were used. The pottery in question was pottery produced in high heat furnaces and advanced methods such that precision in construction, elegance and strength were considered by the potters. The results show that pottery in this area has been a very advanced industry that has used iron and manganese-based minerals to decorate the pottery.
Keywords:  Archeology, Petrography, Bronze Age pottery, Chegardak, SEM-EDX, XRD.

Introduction
Southeastern Iran is one of the most important and prominent regions in terms of human evolution in the Bronze Age. Evidence of this is the dispersion and existence of numerous ancient sites and hills related to the third millennium BC in this area. Significant sites such as Burnt City (Tosi, 1976; Biscione et al., 1977; Piperno & Tosi, 1975; Tosi, 1968) ¬, Bumpur (DeCardi, 1968; Mortazavi, 2004; 2006) 2018), Speedge (Heidary et al., 2019), Khorab (Stein, 1937) and Domain (Tosi, 1970) as well as Chegardak area (Heydari et al, 2015) are prominent and prominent examples in Sistan and Balochistan, all of which have been studied and various archaeological studies to date Chagardak Archaeological Site (27 ° 5’14 ‘’ N; 59 ° 7’8 ‘’ E) is located in Delgan city and Dasht-e Chah Hashem village, 10 km northeast of Chagardak village (200 km west of Iranshahr city). This area takes its name from the nearby village, namely Chagardak. This area is located in a flat and low plain. The ancient site of Chagardak in the plain of Chah Hashem Jazmourian includes a hill and two cemeteries related to the Bronze Age of Balochistan. This area has been in turmoil and damaged in 2005 due to extensive destruction and looting by traders. During the salvage excavations carried out in 1397, the Archaeological Department of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage of Sistan and Baluchestan Province discovered a variety of artifacts, including pottery painted in pea, gray and red. Gray pottery is one of the most important finds from the lesser-known Chagardak site in Balochistan. Therefore, these findings have been analyzed and studied in this pilot study using petrographic, SEM-EDX and XRD methods. In the first stage, petrographic analysis was performed on all pottery. In the study of pottery petrography, a very important issue is the materials added to the pottery paste. All the pottery is wheeled and gray in the range of dark to light and with different thicknesses, but within the fine pottery of this region. Samples were named based on the first letter of the name of the Chagardak site in Latin (CH) and the sample number from 1 to 11. Among these specimens, numbers 1 to 8 are broken and small pieces of pottery obtained in the excavations of this area, and numbers 9 to 11 are pottery that is much more complete and with Ability to perform restoration operations (Table 1). Gray painted pottery is one of the types of pottery that has been obtained in many areas of southeastern Iran. Their designs are taken from the ecology of the region and the culture of the people of that period. Scanning electron microscopy analysis equipped with X-ray fluorescence analysis (SEM-EDX): for microscopic examination of the pottery matrix, identification of minerals as well as melting and vitrification stages of the pottery, as well as identification of the chemical composition of the matrix and minerals. SEM-EDX method was used. The SEM device used is the MIRA3 model made by Tescan, an American product. Also, to identify the composition of pigments used in painting ceramics, the EDX elemental method and the VEGA / TESCAN-XMU model made in the United States, which was coupled to the above SEM machine, have been used. The resolution was 1.5 mm at 15 kV and 4.5 nm at KV1 with BSE detector. Also, the method used in this research is point analysis. The mentioned experiment was performed in Razi Metallurgy Laboratory of Tehran. X-ray diffraction (XRD): X-ray diffraction method has been used to identify crystalline phases and mineralogical studies in the desired pottery. The model of the device used is X’spert Prompd Panytical made in the Netherlands, which has been done in Razi Metallurgical Laboratory of Tehran. The samples were analyzed at 30 Ma current and 40 Kv voltage. Information on the identification of crystal phases based on PDF2 database was reviewed and obtained by Xpert High Score Plus software version 2010. Therefore, how the art of making and recognizing the pottery industry in this region can be one of the most important questions and goals. Therefore, in this research, we have tried to answer some questions such as the following questions by using some common methods of analysis in the archeology of ancient pottery. A) What kind of mineralogical composition does the pottery discovered from Chegardak have? B) Structural and archaeometric studies of ceramics show what kind of process shows in the way of making and baking pottery?

Conclusion
These experiments showed that the pottery has a very dense, hard and non-porous texture, which shows that the prehistoric potters of the Chagardak area five thousand years ago were very precise and skilled in the type of drilling and processing method. So that no emptiness or signs of improper weaving can be found in the pottery. This point should be considered as one of the most important features of gray pottery in this region, especially in the southeast of Iran. On the other hand, the resulting studies show that the soil used in the manufacture and production of pottery paste is very desirable, washed and free of any additives. As their strength is so high after firing that they can not be easily broken, this can be seen well in the type of sintered and semi-glass texture of pottery. Also in XRD phase analysis, the presence of high heat phases was detected. It is very likely that high heat furnaces using regenerative conditions were used in the construction of the pottery. On the other hand, in the archeological excavations and emergency excavations carried out by the archeological group of the area under the supervision of Mohammad Heydari, the architectural remains of a pottery kiln, molten pottery and kiln were discovered, which shows this. This industry has been an art and native production of the people of this area. The last stage of producing a pottery was the methods of polishing and decorating it to produce a magnificent work of art. Elemental studies showed that the prehistoric painter and craftsman of Chagardak used iron-based minerals such as hematite and red recently to record red colors, and a combination of iron-oxide and manganese-based materials to produce black and dark colors.
Keywords: Archeology, Petrography, Bronze Age pottery, Chegardak, SEM-EDX, XRD.
Full-Text [PDF 1118 kb]   (127 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2021/04/14 | Accepted: 2021/08/4 | Published: 2022/03/1
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Haji Sayyedjavadi S M, Sedqi Y, Sheykhi M R, Khatoun Miri N. Investigation and Recognition of Gray Artefacts in Chegardak Bronze Age Using Petrographic, XRD and SEM-EDX Methods. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2022; 5 (18) :31-48
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