The purpose of this research is analysis and survey architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh. The research method in this study is based on surveying and descriptive analysis. The data of this research are contains 14 mosques in Maragheh, that from these numbers 8 mosques haven’t been studied because of that general reconstruction or without being pillars. So, in this study 6 mosques of Maragheh have been surveyed and analyzed. Today, because of the lack of use this kind of decorations in the construction of mosques and their uniqueness, this study is essential. The wooden capitals in this research are decorated with motifs of stalactite work and woodturning with shapes of geometric dangling, stair, and crenate. On these capitals are abundantly seen decorations of arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names. The results of this study indicate that decorations architecture of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh despite having art style of unit, they have variety of colors, designs and form of pillars. The method of doing this research is field-library. The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. Thus, two main questions in this research that the authors try to analyze them is as follows: Can with compare and analyze the decorations of pillars common tips between them found? And, what have decorations of pillars pattern?
Keywords: Decorations, wooden pillars, mosques of Maragheh, Islamic architecture.
In monuments and mosques have been used from the wood as the main components and also as a decorative element. The slender and long wooden trunks with decorations as carrier pillars of roof have been used in buildings. These wooden pillars have played a key role in holding pillars and prayers hall of mosques. The decorating the inner surface of wooden roofs has been of evolved over time and arrived in the late centuries of Islamic to ultimately development. During the Safavid period, that construction of wooden ceilings, known as Chehelsotun, has become spread (Soleymani et.al, 2011: 27).
In Maragheh city is remained wooden mosques of beautiful from Safavid period. These mosques have been contains 14 mosques, but in this research have been studied decorations of pillars mosques Molla Rostam, Molla Moez Aldin, Zarir, Sefid, Ghazi, and Najarlar. These mosques have wooden decorations and the capitals of wooden stalactite in these mosques have been decorated with motifs of arabesque and calligraphy. The artists tried in decoration of these pillars have been used the most beautiful and diverse designs. The authors in this research, after survey all of the pillars, have been presented the fixed pattern from them. So, due to the registration of Maragheh wooden mosques in the national monuments list and wooden decorations of unique them, do this research is essential.
The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. The study of library resources is contains of study the articles and books published in this field and also use the archive of cultural heritage administration of Maragheh County.
Introducing samples of mosques
Mosque of Molla Rostam: This mosque is located in the south side of the Molla Rostam square and among the Chay Osto Bazaar. Most of the pillars of this mosque are made of wood and stalactite motifs. The wooden pillars in this mosque have been prepared from Sepidar tree and woodturning to form of octagonal.
Mosque of Molla Moez Aldin: This mosque is located on the west side of the Khoshkbar square (Salar neighborhood and Hatam alley) in Maragheh city. The mosque of Molla Moez Aldin has two prayers halls of eastern and western. These two prayers halls have roof with flat cover and beamed ceiling, and with the capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Zarir: This mosque is located in the northeastern part of Maragheh City and in street of Mir Habib Agha. The roof with flat cover of prayers hall in mosque of Zarir has six wooden pillars in two rows. Each of these pillars are consists of a stone pedestal, stem of wooden pillar, and capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Sefid: This building is located in the southeastern part of the historical context of Maragheh city, and along one of the historical and main gates of this city in the name of “Darvazeh Biron Ghaleh”. The prayers hall of this mosque has the pillar, and the pillars of them are numbers three.
Mosque of Ghazi: This mosque is located in the Ghazi neighborhood of Maragheh city and corner of Ghods street. The date of construction this mosque is Safavid period. The prayers hall mosque of Ghazi has roof with flat cover, and six of pillars with capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Najarlar: This mosque is located in the Qom neighborhood of northern in Maragheh city. The plane of this mosque is to form of rectangle, and has a prayers hall with three numbers of pillars with stalactite.
The motifs and schemes in architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh, in addition to the have artistic style of unit, they have color variation, scheme, and form in pillars. According to the construction period these mosques, we can see differences in them. The main decorations in these mosques are contains of the rich motifs and arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names.
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