[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 1(2): 105-114 Back to browse issues page
Lur, Consolidation of Ilkhanids
Hamidreza Safakish1, Homayoon Hatamian2
1- Assistant Professor, Department of History, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch.
2- Ph.D. Candidate, Department of History, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch. , h550bc@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (7539 Views)
Abstract
So far, have much been researches about confrontation IlKhanids of Mongol and putting end to Abbasids Caliphate and Ismailis, but still there are many untold of facts unknown to historians and researchers. Based on evidence that we have, local governments of 5 and 6 century were strongly afraid of murders of Ismaili mountaineer. One of the areas that was the perfect opportunity for Ismailis, was the mountains of north of Lur which through an important this passage could connect to Baghdad. The Ilkhanids that according to the Mongolian documents this time their goal was not only to destroy regions and looting, but had come to get a brilliant victory in west Asia because for ten years their territory was not developed in this direction. The situation was so unstable for Mongols that they continuously asked help from the court of Qaan and requested the dismantling of the government of the caliphs of Baghdad and Ismaili. Accordingly, this time they entered Iran with a pre-designed plan. Hülegü army was equipped with Chinese gunpowder and latest engineering equipment of siege. Cavalry archers of Hülegü were under the command of commanders that are involved with military operations with Subutai and Genghis Khan. So, in this study are two questions: What is due to be reviewed in this paper, is a different aspect, derived from this question; whether part of military confrontation with the Abbasids and the Ismailis occurred in places far from the range of historians and left behind in the dark? The first hypothesis this is: the policy of conquest or purchasing numerous castles and penetration in various mountains by the Ismailis and as well as finding ways to penetrate to Baghdad by Ilkhanids, has been gone the struggle between Ilkhanids with Ismailis and Abbasids Caliphate to southwest Zagros Mountains.
Keywords: Lur City, Ilkhanids, Abbasids Caliphate, Ismailis, Baghdad.

Introduction
According to documents presented in this study, Lur City has been strategic center played an effective role for Ilkhanids in defeating their two arch-enemies. Lur city on one hand could play the role of logistics base in mountain base to combat Mongereh castle (Mongereh), that was located on Mount dez (dez) the mountains north of Lur, and also with use of the passage in southwest of city, and Ilkhanids army could easily pass the passage and access the center of the caliphate i.e. Baghdad. According to the documents, this passage also existed in past and according to ancient documents at one time it was crossing between Paul Assyria’s army to fight the Ilam / ancient Ilam, and at the Sassanid period, it was passage used by Sassanid Shapur to deal with Rome in the battle of Edessa. In the Islamic period, its importance was known to Ilkhanids and Hülegü in good way and using military terminal of Lur managed to use part of his military operations against the Ismailis in northern mountains and another part through the southwest passage of city against the Abbasid. Lur base helped Ilkhanids to overcome enemies of Ismaili and Abbasid Caliphate and also they established their rule. From this base, they used their military force against the Damascus and Aleppo, because their next stop after Baghdad was raid on Syria. Hülegü by strengthening its forces in the same passage managed the development, support and guidance of the military operations in other parts. The present article, after survey Lur city, is deals with political and military importance of city in facing Abbasids Caliphate, Ismailis, and Ilkhanids. The work method is based on collecting evidence of valid documents, archaeological and historical books, and analysis from them.

Importance of Lur crossing
Through the passage of southwest of Lur city, Hülegü in 655 AH / December 1257 AD started the battle against the caliphs of Baghdad and in February of 1258 I CE / 656 AH arrived in Baghdad. He plundered Baghdad and after that the caliph surrendered. Abbasids Caliphate treasures were looted and were shipped to the headquarters of the Mongolian Khan. By Hülegü’s command caliph was thrown under horses hooves and killed and after 5 centuries Abbasid caliphate was overthrown by the Mongols. They continued operations to other cities around Syria, through that passage until receiving news of death Mngoqaan the Mongol army was halted progress and Hülegü Khan returned to Azerbaijan. As a result Egypt used the provisional interruption that had emerged in the Mongol onslaught, and provided stability against them. But on the whole Ilkhanids using thus strategic passage by entering Baghdad from the west could bring under the control of different areas. In base of Lur city the Mongereh castle was conquered and this event started Ilkhanids serious presence in the Mongereh castle. Pottery glazed turquoise blue in 7 and 8 AH centuries, is indicate the capture of this important and historic castle by Ilkhanids and their establishment within this period.

Conclusion
According to discussions provided in this study, Lur City as a strategic center played an effective role for Ilkhans in defeating their two arch-enemies. Lur city on one hand could play the role of logistics base in mountain base to combat Mongereh castle (Mongereh), that was located on Mount dez (dez) the mountains north of Lur, and also with use of the passage in southwest of city, and Ilkhanids army could easily pass the passage and access the center of the caliphate i.e. Baghdad. So, it seams, fall of the Lur city has been led to overthrow of Abbasid Caliphate. The pottery glazed turquoise blue in 7 and 8 AH centuries, is indicate the capture of this important and historic castle by Ilkhanids and their establishment within this period.
Keywords: Lur City, Ilkhanids, Abbasids Caliphate, Ismailis, Baghdad.
Full-Text [PDF 746 kb]   (765 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/05/9 | Accepted: 2018/05/9 | Published: 2018/05/9
References
1. - آبادی، باویل (1357). ظرائف و طرائف یا مضاف و منسوب‎های شهر‌های اسلامی و پیرامون. تبریز: انتشارات انجمن، استادان زبان و ادبیات فارسی.
2. - ابن‌حوقل (1366). سفرنامه‌های حوقل. ترجمه و توضیح: جعفر شعار، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر.
3. - اشپولر، برتولد (1386). تاریخ مغول در ایران. ترجمۀ محمود میر‌آفتاب، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
4. - اصطخری، ابوالسحق‌ابراهیم (1347). المسالک الممالک. به‌کوشش: ایرج افشار، تهران: بنگاه ترجمه و نشر کتاب.
5. - اقبال‌آشتیانی، عباس (1384). تاریخ مغول (از حمله چنگیز تا تشکیل دولت تیموری). تهران: انتشارات امیر‌کبیر.
6. - اکبری، حسن. مراد‌سلطان، محمد‌شریف. میراسکندری، سیدمحمود و کرمی، حمیدرضا (1394). «سازه‌آبی لور اندیمشک، یادگاری برجامانده از دوران ایلخانی». مجلۀ باغ‌نظر. دورۀ 12. شمارۀ پیاپی 33. صص: 68-59.
7. - بدوانی، عبدالقادر (1379). منتخب‌التواریخ. به‌تصحیح: مولوی‌احمد‌صاحب، تهران: انتشارات انجمن آثار و مفاخر ملی.
8. - پیگولوسکایا، ن. و و همکاران (1354). تاریخ ایران. ترجمۀ کریم کشاورز، تهران: انتشارات پیام.
9. - تبریزی، محمد‌حسین بن‌خلف (1362). برهان قاطع. تهران:انتشارات امیر کبیر.
10. - جمعی از خاورشناسان فرانسوی (1392). تمدن ایرانی. ترجمۀ عیسی بهنام، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
11. - حافظ‌ ابرو (1378). جغرافیای حافظ‌ابرو. مقدمه، تصحیح و تحقیق: صادق سجادی، تهران: انتشارات میراث مکتوب.
12. - سگوند، اردشیر (1385). «لور، شهری که تنها نامی از آن برجاست». مجلۀ حافظ. نیمۀ دوم مرداد 1385. شمارۀ پیاپی 33. صص: 45-43.
13. - دوبد، کلمنت‌آگوستوس‌بارون (1371). سفرنامۀ لرستان و خوزستان. ترجمۀ محمد‌حسین آریا، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
14. - زرین‌کوب، عبدالحسین (1390). روزگاران. تهران: انتشارات سخن.
15. - راولینسون، سر‌هنری (1362). سفرنامۀ راولینسون (گذر از زهاب به خوزستان). ترجمۀ سکندر امان‌الهی‌بهاروند، تهران: انتشارات آگاه.
16. - رو، ژرژ (1381). عراق باستان. ترجمۀ عبدالرضا (هوشنگ) مهدوی، تهران: نشر پیکان.
17. - مستوفی، حمدالله (1364). تاریخ گزیده. به‌اهتمام: عبدالحسین نوایی، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر.
18. - مقدسی، احمد (1361). احسن التقاسیم فی معرفه الاقالیم. ترجمۀ علینقی متروی، تهران: انتشارات شرکت مؤلفان و مترجمان ایران.
19. - مرتضوی، منوچهر (1371). مسائل عصر ایلخانان. جلد1، تهران: مرکز نشر دانشگاهی.
20. - ویلسون، سرآرنولد (1363). سفرنامه یا تاریخ سیاسی و اقتصادی جنوب‌غربی ایران. ترجمه و تلخیص حسین سعادت‌نوری، تهران: وحید. چاپ دوم.
21. - هال، مری (1380). امپراتوری مغول. ترجمۀ نادر میرسعیدی، تهران: انتشارات ققنوس.
23. - Abadi, B. (1979). Zaref va Taraef or attributes of Islamic cities and surrounding areas. Tabriz: Press of Anjoman Farsi.
24. - Akbari, H. & Morad Soltan, M. S. & Mirskandari, S. M. & Karami, H. R. (2015). “Watery structure of Lur in Andimeshk, memorial stayed from Ilkhanids period”. Journal of Bagh Nazar, Vol. 12, No. 33, P.P. 59-68.
25. - Badvani, A. (2000). Montakhab altavarikh. To effort of Molavi Ahmad Saheb. Tehran: Press of Anjoman Asar Va Mafakher.
26. - Dobed, K. A. B. (1992). Travelogue of Lorestan and Khuzestan. Translate by Mohamad Hoseyn Aria.
27. - Eghbal Ashtyani, A. (2005). History of Mughal (from the Genghis attack to formation of the Timurid government). Tehran: Amir Kabir press.
28. - Eshpoler, B. (2007). History of Mughal in Iran. Translate by Mahmood Miaaftab. Tehran: Scientific and cultural press.
29. - Estakhri, A. (1962). Masalek Va Mamalek. To effort of Iraj Afshar. Tehran: Bongah Tarjomeh Va Nashr Ketab press.
30. - Group of French Orientalists. (2013). Iranian civilization. Translate by Eisa Behnam. Tehran: Scientific and cultural press.
31. - Hafez Abrou. (1999). Geography of Hafez Abrou. To effort of Sadegh Sajjadi. Press of Miras Maktob.
32. - Hal, M. (2001). Mogul Empire. Translate by Nader Mirsaadi. Tehran: Phoenix press.
33. - Ibn Hoghel. (1988). Travelogue of Ibn Hoghel. Translate by Jaafar Shoar. Tehran: Amir Kabir press.
34. - Maghdasi, A. (1983). Ahsan Altaghasim Fi Maarefat Alaghlim. Translate by Ali Naghi Metravi. Press of Moalefan Va Motarjeman Iran.
35. - Mortazavi, M. (1992). Issues of Qajar Age. Tehran: Press of Markaz Nashr Daneshgahi.
36. - Mostofi, H. (1986). Tarikh Gozideh. To effort of Abdolhoseyn Navaii. Tehran: Amir Kabir press.
37. - Pigoloskaya, N. (1976). History of Iran. Translate by Karim Keshavarz. Tehran: Payam press.
38. - Raorinsen, S. H. (1984). Travelogue of Raorinsen. Translate by Sekandar Aman Allahi Baharvand. Tehran: Agah press.
39. - Row, Z. (2002). Ancient Iraq. Translate by Abdoreza (Hoshang) Mahdavi. Tehran: Peykan press.
40. - Saqvand, A. (2006). “Lur, city that is only name it remains”. Joyrnal of Hafez, No. 33, P.P. 43-45.
41. - Tabrizi, M. H. (1984). Borhan Ghate. Tehran: Amir Kabir press.
42. - Zarinkob, A. (2011). Rozegaran. Tehran: Sokhan press.
43. - Vilson, A. (1985). Travelogue Or political and economic history of Southwestern Iran. Translate by Hoseyn Saadat Nori. Tehran: Vahid press.
44. - (www.google.com/maps).
45. - (www.khuznews.ir).
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Safakish H, Hatamian H. Lur, Consolidation of Ilkhanids. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 1 (2) :105-114
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-40-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.19 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4419