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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 1(2): 77-89 Back to browse issues page
A review of Three Tomb Towers: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, and Yengi Arakh in Bijar County of Kurdistan Province
Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei
Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology in Bu-Ali Sina University , mohamadezarei@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (7163 Views)
Abstract
In Bijar County and in a relatively near route of Hasanabad Yasokand city are located of three tomb towers, in villages of Yengi Arakh, Och Gonbad Khan, and Alishah. Although, these towers haven’t been made at a time, but two samples of them are remarkably similar. These three buildings of shaped tower Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, and Yengi Arakh are located in north of  Bijar County. These towers, in terms of geographical location, are located in caravan route of regional. Although these buildings with name of the tower are known, but the main problem is that, how can these towers placed in tomb monument? And, have these buildings been for resting of passengers? In this regard, there are two hypotheses; these buildings have been minaret of guide and sometimes from them used for resting passengers of Bijar, Soltanih, Zanjan, and Maragheh. Also, evidences of little available shows that these buildings in the late sixth century to eighth century  A.H. and by local authorities have been made for themselves or elders of their family. The result of this research shows that made these types of buildings have been due to the proximity of Soltanih Zanjan in Ilkhanids age and influenced by events in the region. Local rulers have made these types of buildings in realm of government themselves for themselves or religious and mystical elders of the region. For do this research, has been used from field – library method. In information of field section, author, buildings this study from has nearly been survey and photography them. Furthermore, from library sources for preparing images and review of historical texts for purposes of this study has been used.
Keywords: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, Yengi Arakh, Tomb Tower, Bijar.

Introduction
The tombs in Iranian architecture in Islamic period in terms of form and function have special place. Meanwhile, tomb tower are important in terms of shape and form. Although many these types of buildings in terms of form, architectural decorations, and function have been studied, but there are still monumental architecture of such buildings haven’t been studied because of the distance from the main roads. Unfortunately, due to neglect of these types of buildings, they have been destroyed. Including these traces are three tomb towers in villages of Hasanabad Yasokand city in Kurdistan Province. These buildings in terms of location, form, function, and use of local materials are deserving of separate study. In this regard, there are some questions: First; how can these buildings considered of tomb towers? Second; can be inferred these towers function of buildings of between roads for travelers rest? Third; these towers were related to the period and who were their builders? In relation to questions of above, can be raised these hypotheses: First; these towers are including of tomb towers and from these buildings have likely been used for funeral. Second; these towers have likely been guide minaret for guide and shelter of travelers in route of cities of Bijar in Kurdistan province and Soltanieh, Zanjan, and Maragheh in Azerbaijan. Of course, this theory haven’t been found until other documents, is accepted. The research method this study is historical-analytical that according to field surveys, providing picture, and study of historical texts and library documents has been done. So far, in relation to the topic of this research haven’t been done comprehensive studies. The only information available from these buildings is related to reports of 1970.

Location, introducing, and describing the towers
Ashghon Baba tower: The brick-work tower of Ashghon Baba is located in Siah Mansor district in near to village Alishah in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and in Bijar County. This tower due to lack of protection and restore, and also destruction by smugglers has been destroyed. The plan of this building has been octagon that up to 60 cm from the floor it has been built stonework and then up to dome valet built with bricks of special of Seljuk. The type of the outer dome it (that previously, has been made on it) has most been likely of type from frank dome of poly crack. 
Tower of Och Gonbad Khan: This tower of rocky is located in distance of 75 km northwest of Bijar city and in village of Och Gonbad Khan. Tower building has a plane of circular shape. Tower of Och Gonbad Khan has been made of stone and mortar. The current status of the building is show, ceiling has been made with a dome of stone. The internal dimensions of the tower are 4/30 meters and entrance 1/30 meters high. The width of stone walls of tower is 90 centimeters and the height is 6 meters. It seams, this tower with tomb towers of Seljuk and Ilkhanid periods as Round Tower and Tower Joy (Brand, 1997: 620) is comparable in terms of appearance and plane.
Yengi Arakh tower: This tower is located in vicinity of village with this name and 63 kilometers north of Bijar city and in route of Qom Choghay river. Yengi Arakh tower has circular plane. The internal diameter of the building is 5/20 meters, and width of the wall is 1/55 meters, and outer diameter is 8/30 meters. In this tower most of the materials are made of stone and plaster. This building is comparable in terms of type of plane, materials, and form with tower of Och Gonbad Khan.

Conclusion
The Idea building of tomb buildings, in form of tomb towers with the function of minaret or tomb in distant places, during past periods has spread. It seams, tomb towers that in this research were study, have been built with this thought. These tomb towers alongside of cities in periods of Seljuk and Ilkhanid, have been cause of increased traffic. Furthermore, these buildings have also been effective in terms of promotion traditional architecture. In alongside this communication creation of buildings in the form of tomb towers with various functions as Emamzadeh Aghil in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and three tomb towers in this study, have been created.
Keywords: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, Yengi Arakh, Tomb Tower, Bijar.
Full-Text [PDF 774 kb]   (1181 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/05/9 | Accepted: 2018/05/9 | Published: 2018/05/9
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Zarei M E. A review of Three Tomb Towers: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, and Yengi Arakh in Bijar County of Kurdistan Province. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 1 (2) :77-89
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