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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 1(2): 21-36 Back to browse issues page
Analysis of Influence Ancient Roads in the Formation Ancient Settlements in the Plain of Aleshter
Abbas Motarjem1, Mehdi Heydari2
1- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Bu-Ali Sina
2- Ph.D. Candidate, Archaeology, University of Bu-Ali Sina , Mehdiheydari448@Gmail.com
Abstract:   (8608 Views)
Abstract
Aleshtar plain is central part of Selseleh county and located in North Loristan province. This plain is region lush and with pleasant weather and rich soil. This area has been from prehistoric period so far always settlements folks and different groups human. Location of Aleshtar plain and proximity with Northern areas Zagros, Central Plateau, Southwest Iran, and Mesopotamia, for a long time to this area has particular importance of communication. Authors, after explaining the climate and ancient roads Aleshtar, have analyzed dispersion form of ancient and historical settlements this area. In this regard, using with ArcGIS software (version 10.3) location of each site is specified in Aleshtar. Output of ArcGIS software, is four maps in Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. After studies is specified approximate route of ancient road in Aleshtar plain (north-south road in central Zagros). Therefore, combining the two points, included, ancient road north-south and also distribution of ancient and historic sites in Aleshtar plain, in before and after Islamic periods, this question was raised: what role has this ancient road in Aleshtar plain in the formation ancient settlements? For this question, authors with preliminary survey in Aleshtar plain they had this hypothesis: basically, this ancient road from Islamic periods has played a pivotal role in the formation of sites. Analysis distance of each site from this ancient road has showed, most archaeological sites has been formation in Aleshtar plain from the Islamic period along this route; In the Pre-Islamic periods, hasn’t been focus center of settlements around this ancient road with distance of about two kilometers. Data of this study is based on archaeological research Ali Sajjadi in 1998 and Davood Davoodi in 2006 and 2007. Also, authors have done again surveyes in this area.
Keywords: Aleshtar plain, Settlement, Ancient roads, and GIS Analysis.

Introduction
Selseleh County is located in north of Lorestan and in South of Hamedan Province. From Aleshtar city is mentioned in various sources. This point has been indicative importance this region in Pre-Islamic and Islamic periods. Archaeological survey that so far has been done in Aleshtar plain, confirms importance of this area. In Aleshtar before all, by Oral Stin has been done archaeological survey (Stin, 1940). Colar Goff in during archaeological surveys in North Lorestan; She has also surveyed Aleshtar (Goff, 1968). In 1998, Ali Sajjadi was surveyed Aleshtar from administration of Cultural Heritage of Lorestan province. Now, report her work is in archives administration of Cultural Heritage of Lorestan province (Sajjadi, 1998). Furthermore, in 2006 and 2007, Davood Davoodi was surveyed historic and ancient monuments Aleshtar in during two seasons (Davoodi, 2006 and 2007). Authors, in order to explain process settlement in Aleshtar plain, and measurement influence of climatic conditions area, and importance of ancient and historical roads of this region, have done draw a map ancient settlements of Aleshtar plane in Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. For this purpose, has been used from report of survey Ali Sajjadi (Sajjadi, 1998), and reports of surveys Davood Davoodi (Davoodi, 2006 and 2007), and also, again surveyes authors in this area. In this research, has been used for register ancient sites on the map from ArcGIS software (version 10.3). So, authors in this research try to analyze the following issues:
What role has this ancient road in Aleshtar plain in the formation ancient settlements? And essentially, role of road north-south in Aleshtar plain at what period is seen? The main hypothesis of this research, it is: Around of ancient road in Aleshtar plain in Islamic period has been settlement. In the Pre-Islamic period, hasn’t been focus center of settlements around this ancient road with distance of about two kilometers.

Settlements of Aleshtar plain from prehistoric to Islamic periods
The Communication route that has been connected West to Southwest of Iran (Hamedan and Kermanshah to Khozestan plain), one of the most important route of communication in Pre-Islamic periods, and this road has been connected West and Northwest to regions of Southwest Iran. Continue this road has been crossed from Aleshtar plain. Study location of sites from prehistory to Islamic periods has points, has been effective in description of problem, settlement patterns and also role of ancient roads in this area in formation of settlement patterns. In study area, were identified in total 96 settlements sites. The sites were divided into four groups, that including Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. According to, in Aleshtar plain were identified 27 sites related to Chalcolithic period. It seems, in this period entire Aleshtar plain has been inhabited. Most of settlements are seen in around rivers of Kahman and Zaz. However, in the eastern part of Aleshtar, is seen number large sites settlements related whit this period. Also, in this area were identified 28 sites related to Bronze and Iron periods. Checking the distribution map of sites in these periods, interpretations related whit Chalcolithic period is show. In this period entire Aleshtar plain has been inhabited. In Historic periods (especially Parthian period), we see increasing number of sites in Aleshtar. In this area were identified 82 sites related to Historic periods. Furthermore, in Aleshtar were identified 52 sites related to Islamic period. In this period number of sites has dropped relative to previous period. In this period, aggregation of sites is in central area of Aleshtar.

Conclusion
Climatic and environmental conditions also ancient roads, is two major factors in relation to settlement patterns in Aleshtar plain from prehistoric to Islamic periods. In Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, and Historic periods is settlement of pattern absolutely scattered and dependent on water resources and land. In these periods aren’t interpretable of focus in sites Aleshtar. In Islamic period, aggregation of sites is in central area of Aleshtar. Two to three kilometers in North and West in Modern city of Aleshtar has largest number of sites from Islamic period. In Islamic period settlement of pattern is around ancient road (north-south) in Aleshtar plain.
Keywords: Aleshtar plain, Settlement, Ancient roads, and GIS Analysis.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/05/9 | Accepted: 2018/05/9 | Published: 2018/05/9
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Motarjem A, Heydari M. Analysis of Influence Ancient Roads in the Formation Ancient Settlements in the Plain of Aleshter. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 1 (2) :21-36
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