[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2020, 3(10): 7-24 Back to browse issues page
Investigating and Analyzing of the Cultural and Settlement Data from the Excavation of the Lapui Mound (Tel Siyah Khan Shanguli)
Mohsen Ghasemi1, Mohammad Reza Saeedi Harsini *2, Ahmad Chaichi Amirkhiz3
1- Ph.D. student in Archeology, Department of Archeology, Institute of Literature, Department of Science and Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate Professor, Department of History, Research Institute for Research and Development of Humanities (Samt), Tehran, Iran , Saeedi@samt.ac.ir
3- Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology Prehistory Period, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (2676 Views)
Abstract
The Fars province is one of the most important areas in Iran in term of pre-history archeological studies. This region has good natural talent due to its diverse environmental infrastructures. During the Samnard’s archaeological exploration in the year of 1972 AD, according to the identification of polished red plain pottery in several sites of the Marvdasht plain and excavation of the Tel Bakun in layer 5A, an important period was identified in the Fars chronological sequence which called the Lapui period. Over the past few decades, due to limited recognition of the material-cultural characteristics of the Lapui period and the short duration of cultural continuity (3900-3400 BC), uncertainties such as the precise beginning and end of this period, livelihoods, socio-cultural mechanisms, specialized production and economic remains. The variety of cultural materials obtained has consisted of several layers of settlement, architectural structures, pottery, handicrafts and stone utensils, animal figurines, materials related to administrative and administrative techniques, ornamental and miscellaneous objects that have been studied and evaluated. The present study is related to the study of cultural and settlement materials obtained from the excavation of Lapui mound and its conclusion is a confirmation of the cultural-settling continuation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period in Marvdasht plain which in this research has been addressed.
Keywords: Fars Province, Marvdasht Plain, Lapui Period, Excavation of Lapui Mound.

Introduction
The Kor and Syvand rivers are the important rivers in the Marvdasht plain that have been effective in establishment of settlements and sustaining of them. There are numerous mid- mountain plains along the course of these permanent rivers, the most important of which is the Bayza and Marvdasht plains. The beginning of archaeological activities and sequence identification of the Fars chronology is based more on the sounds of the Louis Vandenberg (Vandenberg, 1952: 54-75). The Lapui period is one of the most important phases of the pre-history chronology of this region and south of the Iranian plateau. This period was named by the characteristic pottery of layer A5 of Tal Bakun and derives from the name of the Lapui Village in the Zarghan area and was recorded in the Fars chronology. The cultural horizon of this period dates from about 3900 to 3400 BC and fills the gap between the cultures of the Bakun and Bansh.
Necessity and Purposes of Research: The importance and necessity of excavation of the Lapui Mound is actually the accumulation of cultural data within the archaeological deposits that have led to an understanding of objective relationship of the material and layers with each other, and so far this has not happened in the excavations of this cultural period in the Marvdasht plain. The main objectives of this study are to clear up the ambiguities mentioned above in the Lapui Period and to determine its cultural sequence in chronology of the South Zagros and Fars cultures in Marvdasht plain.
Research Question and Hypothesis: The most important question in this research is to study and analyze the cultural and settlement data which obtained from excavation of mound, in order to explain the 4th millennium BC of the Fars. To explain such a journey, the hypothesis of the achievements of excavation of this site can be stated that the diversity of cultural materials found in the various sections of architecture and the various cultural materials is categorical and noteworthy in some respects, identical and close to other similar cultural sites and some are unique.
Research Methodology: In this study, we tried to utilize the results of field research of Lapui Mound and comparative library studies. The most important method of data analysis in this research is based on statistical methods with comparison and analysis. By excavation of the site, significant quantities of cultural material have been obtained. Therefore, the identification of Lapui period and cultural features of this period on the Lapui Mound in the 4th millennium BC, based on the study and analysis of cultural data through field studies, documentary and interdisciplinary studies begin and has been dealt with.

Geographical Location of Lapui Mound
The Lapui Mound is located 3 kilometers south of the Kor River. Its height is about 2 meters, 140 meters’ length and 130 meters wide which cover an area of about 1.2 hectares. The mound is located 1573 meters above sea level (Abdi, 2016).

The excavated trenches in the Lapui Mound
The excavation focused on two trenches, T-1 in the middle of the mound toward to southwestern part of the mound and T.2 in the central part of the mound.

Material and Cultural Data from Excavation of Lapui Mound
During the excavation of Lapui Mound, a total of 6249 pieces of pottery with a total weight of 80.497 kg were obtained. According to the studies, the stone as raw material obtained in the excavation of Lapui Mound with a variety of heated stones, small stone decorative containers, artifacts and stone tools are mentioned.
Findings and evidence of politico-administrative and economic documents such as seals, seal impress, counting tokens, seal the container door and pieces of baked mud have been found in the settlement layers of the Lapui mound.
In all from excavation of the Lapui Monud from Trench 1 in layers 04, 05 and 06, five pieces of intact shale in type of bivalve and fragments of average length 6.5 cm (largest) and 3 cm (smallest), width 4.2 cm (largest) and 1.7 cm (smallest) obtained.

Conclusion
The most important achievement of excavation of the Lapui mound is the identification of archaeological deposits in the site that have been identified and classified into 20 layers and the settlement phases associated with that have been identified in the trenches and stratigraphic sound up to virgin soil. Cultural - material remains obtained from the excavated layers of the Lapui mound along with coherent architecture and variety of identified functions, including workshop, kitchen, residential, and uninterrupted settlement sequences identified in stratigraphy, as an integral part of studies Lapui mound has been great importance in the cultural explanation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period of Fars. The variety of types of structures in the layers reflects the type of temporary settlement with a permanent architectural style, with a coherent and intensive architecture in the site. According to the studies, all the layers and cultural materials belonged to the Lapui period, which dates back to the 4th millennium BC. The results of study and analysis of the little cultural material obtained of Lapui mound indicate the presence of inhabitants of this site during the 4th millennium BC and coincide with the late Bakun period (new Bakun) and the beginning of the Lapui period until the middle of this period clearly and possibly later.
Keywords: Fars Province, Marvdasht Plain, Lapui Period, Excavation of Lapui Mound.
Full-Text [PDF 1280 kb]   (454 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/10/24 | Accepted: 2019/12/20 | Published: 2020/03/6
References
1. - اینیزان، ماری‌لونیز؛ بالینگر، میشل ردرن؛ روش، هلن؛ و تیکیسه، ژان، (1389). فناوری و واژه‌شناسی دست‌افزار‌های سنگی. ترجمۀ الهام قصیدیان، تهران: سیمرا.
2. - جعفری، بهادر؛ و جعفری، راضیه، (1391). لپویی ستارۀ درخشان فارس. جلد اول، شیراز: ایلاف.
3. - حبیبی، فصل‌الله، (1392). «گزارش بررسی روشمند تل‌سیاه‌خان (شنگولی) لپویی شیراز»، شیراز: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری استان فارس (منتشر نشده).
4. - حصاری، مرتضی، (1392). شکل‌گیری و توسعۀ آغازنگارش در ایران (از پیش‌نگارش تا آغازایلامی). تهران: انتشارات سمت.
5. - رفیع‌فر، جلال‌الدین، (1389). «ابزارهای سنگ تراشیده جیران‌تپه و یان‌تپه (فصل‌های سوم و چهارم، 1380-1379)». کاوش‌های محوطۀ باستانی ازبکی. جلد اول هنر و معماری. به‌کوشش: یوسف مجیدزاده، تهران: ادارۀ کل میراث‌فرهنگی استان تهران.
6. - زاهدی، محمدرضا، (1383). «معادن و منابع قیر طبیعی و تجارت آن در خاورنزدیک باستان براساس متون و شواهد باستان‌شناسی». باستان‌پژوهی، شمارۀ 12، پاییز ، صص: 46-43.
7. - زیدی، محسن، (1383). «الگوهای پراکندگی و نوسان‌های جمعیتی فرهنگ‌های پیش‌از‌تاریخ تا دوران اسلامی در دره‌های رود کر، شمال‌غربی فارس». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران (منتشر نشده).
8. - سرداری‌زارچی، علیرضا، (1390). «تحلیل پیچیدگی‌های اجتماعی-اقتصادی فرهنگ‌های شمال فارس (اقلید) در دورۀ مس‌سنگی براساس کاوش تپۀ مهرعلی». رسالۀ دکتری باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس (منتشر نشده).
9. - ظاهری، محمدحسین؛ و سرداری‌زارچی، علیرضا، (1396). «نظام حسابداری اولیه در دورۀ پیش‌از‌تاریخ، یافته‌هایی از کاوش تل‌مش‌کریم شهرستان سمیرم». مطالعات باستان‌شناسی، سال 9، شمارۀ 2، پاییز و زمستان. صص: 136-125.
10. - عبدی، کامیار، (1395). «گزارش مقدماتی تعیین عرصه و پیشنهاد حریم و کاوش تپه لپویی-فارس». با همکاری: محسن قاسمی و نوروز رجبی، شیراز: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی استان فارس (منتشر‌‎نشده).
11. - عبدی، کامیار؛ قاسمی، محسن؛ و بیگلری، عارف، (1394). «گزارش کاوش ترانشۀ 2 تپه‌لپویی فارس»، شیراز: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی استان فارس (منتشر نشده).
12. - علیزاده، عباس، (1371). «پیچیدگی ساختار اجتماعی اقتصادی و فن مدیریت تجاری در یک جامعۀ پیش‌ازتاریخ». باستان‌شناسی و تاریخ. سال 7، شمارۀ 1 و 2، صص: 44-26.
13. - علیزاده، عباس، (1374). «گزارش توصیفی مقدماتی بررسی‌های باستان‌شناسی-انسان‌شناسی در دره‌های رود کر و ناحیه شمال‌غرب مرودشت فارس». گزارش باستان‌شناسی 1، تهران: معاونت پژوهشی سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی و پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی.
14. - علیزاده، عباس، (1383). منشأ نهادهای حکومتی در پیش‌ازتاریخ فارس، تل‌باکون، کوچروی باستان و تشکیل حکومت‌های اولیه. ترجمۀ کوروش روستایی، تهران: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری. بنیاد پژوهشی پارسه- پاسارگاد.
15. - علیزاده، عباس، (1385). «گزارش بررسی و کاوش محوطۀ باستانی ابوفندوا - خوزستان». تهران: پژوهشکدۀ باستان-شناسی (منتشر نشده).
16. - مترجم، عباس؛ و شریفی، مهناز، (1393). «تحلیلی بر کارکرد و ماهیت نماد‌کالاها (توکن) و پیکرک‌های گلی در دورۀ مس و سنگی تپه‌قشلاق، تالوار، کردستان». پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران، دورۀ 4، شمارۀ 7، صص: 48-27.
17. - محمدی، ایرج، (1385). «گزارش پروندۀ ثبت محوطۀ تل‌سیاه‌خان لپویی- تل‌شنگولی». شیراز: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری استان فارس (منتشر نشده).
18. - محمدی‌فر، یعقوب؛ متیوس، روجر؛ متیوس، وفری؛ و مترجم، عباس، (1390). « پروژۀ باستان‌شناسی زاگرس مرکزی (CZAP): گزارش مقدماتی کاوش و بررسی در تپه شیخی آباد صحنه و تپه جانی اسلام آباد غرب». پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران (نامه باستان‌شناسی)، شمارۀ 1 دورۀ اول پاییز و زمستان، صص: 9-30.
19. - مقیمی، نیلوفر؛ و فاضلی‌نشلی، حسن، (1394). «بررسی باستان‌شناختی سامانۀ حسابداری در جوامع انسانی پیش‌از‌تاریخ دشت قزوین مورد مطالعاتی تپه‌زاغه». مطالعات باستان‌شناسی، دورۀ 7، شمارۀ 11، صص: 136-127.
20. - یشمی، رامین، (1394). «بازنگری و وارسی گونه‌شناسی سفال لپویی در توالی فرهنگی زاگرس‌جنوبی». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران‌مرکز (منتشر نشده).
22. - Alizadeh, A., (2014). Ancint settlement system and cultures in the Rom Hormaz Plain, southwestern iran excavation at tall -e Geser and reginal survey of the Rom Hormoz plain Chicago, Oriental Institute Publications.
23. - Berenbeck, R.; Fazeli, H. & Pollock, S., (2005). “Life in a fifth millennium B.C. village: Excavations at Rahmatabad, Iran”. Near Eastern Archaeology, 68 (3). Pp. 94-105.
24. - Delugaz, P. & Kantor, H., (1996). Chogha Mish: The First Five seasons of Excavations,1961-1971. Edited by: A. Alizadeh, Publication 101, 2 Vol. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
25. - Goff, C., (1963). “Excavation at Tell-I Nokhodi”. IRAN I. Pp. 43-70.
26. - Gotch, P., (1968-69). “A survey of the Persepolis and Shiraz Area”. IRAN VI. Pp. 168-170.
27. - Kardualias, N., (2003). “lithic: Reduction sequence and Microwear Analysis”. In: Early Urban Life in the land of Anshan: Excavations at Tal-e Malyan in the Highj lands of Iran. Sumner. W. (Ed). University of pensylvania Musume, Pp. 84-93.
28. - Langsdorff, A. & McCown, D. E., (1942). Tall-i-bakun A: season of 1932. Oriental Institute publication, Vol. 59, Chicago University press, Chicago.
29. - Oudbashi, O.; Emami, S. M. & Davami, P., (2012). “Bronze in Archaeology: A Review of the Archaeometallurgy of Bronze in Ancient Iran”. In: L. Collini (ed.) Copper Alloys-Early Applications and current performance- Enhancing processes In Tech, Pp. 153-176.
30. - Petrie, C. A.; Weeks, L. R.; Potts, D. T. & Roustaei, K., (2006). “Perspectives on the cultural sequence of mamasani”. In: D.T. Potts and k. Roustaei, (Esd), The Mamasani Archaeological project stage. one: A Report on the frist two seasons of the (ICAR) University of Sydney Expedition to the Mamasani district, Fars province, Iran. Tehran Iranian centre for Archaeological Reserch, Pp.169-196.
31. - Piperno, M., (1973). “Jahrom, A Middle Palaeolithic site in Fars”. East and West, vol. 22, Pp. 65-82.
32. -Pittman, H., (2000). “Administrative Evidence from Hacinebi Tepe: and Essay on the local and the colonia”. Paleorient, 25 (1). Pp. 43-50.
33. - Pollarck, S.; Bernbeck, R. H. & Abdi, K., (2003). The 2003 Excavation at Toll-e Bashi, Iran: social life in a Neolitic Village Archaeologie in Iran Und Turan. 10, Mainz am rhein: Deutsche Archaologis chen Instut: Eurasien Abteilung.
34. - Rothman, M., (1994). “Sealing's as control Mechanism in Prehistory: Tepe Gawra XI, X and VII in chiefdoms and Early states in Near East”. Organizational Dynamics of complexity, Edited by: C. Stein and M. S. Rothman, Prehistory Press. Madison, Wiscansin.
35. - Speth, J. D. (2015). “When Did Humans Learn Boil?”. Submitted: 5 september 2014: Accepted 4 April 2015. Department of Anthropology, 101 west Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, University of Micigan, Ann Arbor, M I 4810-1107, USA.
36. - Sumner, W. M., (1972). “Cultural development in the kur River Basin, Iran an archaeological analysis of Settlement patterns”. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia.
37. -Sumner, W., (1988). “Prelude to proto Elamite Anshan:The lapui phase”. Iranica Antiqua 23. Pp. 23.
38. - Sumner, W., (2003). Early Urban Life in Land of Anshan: Excavations at Tal-e Malyan in the Highlands of Iran. Philadelphia: University Museum Monograph 117.
39. - Vanden Berge, L., (1952). “Archaologische opzochingen in de Marv-Dasht valkte (Iran)”. Jaarbericht Ex Orient Lux, 12, Pp. 211-220.
40. - Weeks, L.; Alizadeh, A.; Niknami, L.; Alamdari, K.; Zeidi, M.; Khosrowzadeh, A. & McCall, B., (2006). “The Neolithic settlement of Highland SW Iran: New Evidence From the Mamasani District”. IRAN. 44, Pp. 1-31.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghasemi M, Saeedi Harsini M R, Chaichi Amirkhiz A. Investigating and Analyzing of the Cultural and Settlement Data from the Excavation of the Lapui Mound (Tel Siyah Khan Shanguli). Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2020; 3 (10) :7-24
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-296-en.html


year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.2 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4241