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Showing 7 results for Subject: General

Michael D Glascock, Ahmad Chaychi Amirkhiz,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

Rare Prehistoric obsidian Artifacts have been found in Central Plateau of Iran. late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Societies in this region had progressive industry and glory independent culture is known as Cheshme Ali culture – fine red pottery culture – which spread out North East of Iran and Turkmenistan. Obsidian provenance study of this culture is very important to determine trade routes and interactive relations with Anatolia and Mesopotemia as cradle of civilization. The famous Cheshme Ali site near Tehran has been excavated by Erich Schmidt 1934- 1936 and findings have been kept by University of Pennsylvania Museum. Nine lithic artifacts from this site were submitted to Archaeometry Laboratory of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) for analysis by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Eight of the Cheshmeh Ali artifacts were obsidian and were discovered to be from sources located in Turkey and Armenia. The ninth artifact was found not to be an obsidian, but instead was made from chert.

Cristina Aibéo, Stefan Röhrs, Giorgia Marucci, Ina Reiche,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is widely used for the identification of pigments on art works. Due to the priceless value of artistic objects, non-invasive measurements are strongly preferred over sampling strategies. However, the non-invasive spectral response is often lower if compared to measurements carried out on a sample. In this study, spectral intensity of measurements performed with various non-invasive Raman set-ups was compared with spectral intensity from a traditional micro-Raman set-up,. The comparison was done on pure pigments reference swatches first, to test the methodology. Then a painting was investigated, as case study on a real artefact, directly on its surface and on taken samples under the microscope. For the non-invasive measurements, four horizontal beam set-ups and an external measuring head connected to the spectrometer by fibre optics were used. Two lasers were used: 785 and 532 nm. The results were determined as counts (Raman signal intensity) per second of measurement and per Watt of laser intensity (Cnts/Ws). A method to compare performances among the different experimental conditions is proposed in this work. The horizontal beam configurations showed spectral responses in signal intensity very similar to those of the traditional microscope but the ones from the fibre optics were only at about 10% of that of the microscope. These results show the potential of horizontal set-ups for the analyses of artworks, as their performance is equivalent to the traditional microscope configuration. However, the more challenging positioning for the horizontal beam set-ups can hamper the acquisition of a good spectrum, since either the Raman spectrometer or the artwork has to be moved with µm scale precision to position the laser spot on the area of interest. This often requires improvements, especially regarding the mechanical stability of the analytical set-up as well as the artwork.

Farahnaz Bayatnejad, Mohamadamin Emami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

Ancient glass, as rare archaeological findings in sites, which clarifying the skill and technology of artisans in controlling the furnace heat and know-how about the raw-mix in glass industry. Due to the glass destruction in burial setting, ancient glass has different defects depending on its application and the way of use. Destruction and damages in historic glass happen through the effects of environmental factors on surface of the glass or through mass transfer due to changing the conditions from inside the glass toward the surface (leaching). Non-destructive methods in identifying the structural nature of the objects and the destruction during ages have higher priority than other techniques. In this article some historic glass discovered from the city Istakhr belongs to the early years of Islamic are evaluated. To analyze destructive structures Light Microscope with reflected light and Electron Microscope were used. These methods help to identify and analyze surface destruction such as weathering corrosion and iridescence in order to have a better understanding of corrosion structure and types of damages.

Amir Ershad-Langroudi, Hamid Fadaii, Kamran Ahmadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

Silane/siloxane surface treatment are proposed as potential polymeric materials for protective and consolidation coatings of limestone substrates. The silane and silioxane coatings are widely used to strengthen and waterproof of historical monuments. Historical stones are very fragile because of bearing many years in sever weathering conditions. Strengthening historical stones requires paying attention to surface treatment by the aim of decreasing humidity and improvement of mechanical properties. Toward this end, the consolidation coatings using silane and siloxane resins can improve the mechanical properties of historical stones against weathering condition. In this study, two types of coatings based on mixed of silane/siloxane as potential coatings to consolidate historical stones were proposed and the mechanical results were compared with uncoated stones. The mechanical tests approved the silane and siloxane resins can be considered as a proper choice to protect and strengthen historical stones. The results indicated that the contact angle of the coated samples rises up with treating by silane/siloxane resins. This could be due to the presence of organic groups of poly siloxanes act as hydrophobic agents which increase the hydrophobic nature of the surface contact angle. In addition, Si-OH bond of silane as well as consolidation effect can be created the covalent bonding by mineral surface and filling of the small fissures in the stone surfaces. 

Mahin Sohrabi Nasirabadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

While most scholars consider intangible cultural heritage endangered by negative effects of globalization on culture,) as globalization and specific conditions of this phenomenon may lead tribes to impatience in respecting cultures and cultural representations and different cultures face with the risk of less significance and or total ruining. (This research as a paradigm, referring to intangible cultural heritage for cultural globalization has recommended (it as universal values based(.
 ‘Intangible cultural heritage’ due to the presence of tangible, intangible, intellectual, and emotional aspects of social groups, as well as art are naturally ‘national-local’ and ‘global’. Indeed, they are the identity factor representing the ‘what’ and ‘who’ of a community, a document of human destiny, cultures, and civilizations. Therefore, the question raised here is what role ‘cultural heritage’ plays in the process of ‘globalization’? and, how it preserves and globalizes the community’s original identity in globalization?
The hypothesis is: “Intangible cultural heritage is the common language among cultures presenting previous immortal elements to the present and future. It also enhances people’s awareness level or the world’s self-awareness level in globalization domain that is a knowledge, humanity, and rational-based context, leading them toward a community with human values and criteria.”
Thus, culture-oriented approaches, ‘mosaic design or cultural puzzle” paradigm, as well as ‘cultural relativism theory’ along with ‘cultures’ integration paradigm include theoretical foundations of this research. 
The result suggests that there are two essential pillars of exchange, ie "cultural diversity and creativity" and "resources of meaning and spirituality" and offers a variety of common intellectual foundation of man, the "traditional handcrafts objects" - means the heritage that art is interwoven with spiritual wisdom leads it is up to them to "immigrants spiritual" principles and values "mental world" to provide converter. So, as not to influence the way that most of the absorption and attractions, all without resistance and opposition, and had the desire to be receptive.
This research theoretically collected data through documentary and library method. The descriptive data formulated by expletory- analytical method in which, often, inductive reasoning and sometimes, deductive reasoning applied. 
Morteza Garavand, Somayeh Kazemi Dehaghi, Moloud Sadat Azimi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

The medallion (Spherical) shape ceramic vessels, known as Fogha jars date back to early Islamic centuries. Theses ceramics are ordinary unglazed vessels, yet clearly distinct from other unglazed ceramics, in terms of their shape and formation and are easily detectable. These vessels have been discovered in the ancient sites of many Islamic countries including Iran, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria as well as Spain and India. The medallion (Spherical) shape ceramics are completely backed and have a compact texture to the extent that they are not easy to break. In fact, the vessel’s body is very thick compare to their size and this makes them very heavy as well. The structures and the compounds of this type of ceramics, discovered in the cultural layers of several sites, are not still clear; therefore, a comprehensive study on these ceramics not only requires the cultural and archeological knowledge but also the physical and chemical analyses. Regarding the cultural significance of the mentioned ceramics and their unique features, the present study aims in studying these medallion (Spherical) shape ceramic vessels by means of precise scientific criteria and high standards. To this aim, after the general description of the ceramics, their physical and chemical properties were also evaluated by means of several laboratory methods and analytical devices in order to reach a morphological perspective of the ceramics in terms of their components, techniques and methods of manufacturing. The samples were analyzed via XRF elemental analysis and X-ray photography to identify the types of compounds and the firing technique. The physical features are also evaluated via hardness, density, porosity tests etc.

Sahar Noohi, Helen Asadian,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (11-2017)
Abstract

A great percentage of photographic documents are usually assessed through visual analysis or optical microscopic investigations. Yet, since many related analysis (e.g. dating, identification of materials, knowing ancient techniques, and conservation and restoration) could not be performed through these methods, application of analytical instruments, specially nondestructive  or micro-destructive ones which could reveal detailed information, become of great concern of researchers.
The main result of the study is to prove that µ-FTIR is one of the most, rapid, and economic technique which could be explored as a routine diagnostic tool to identify the type of photographic glass plates. We identified some photographic glass plate emulsions of Golestan palace photo archive, by µ-FTIR technique; and the result approved the efficacy of the technique to study such cases.


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