Volume 41, Issue 1 (Spring 2020)                   Athar 2020, 41(1): 66-91 | Back to browse issues page

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Khaleghian S, Taghavi Nejad B. Documentation of Architecture and Decoration of the "Ghadimi" Qajar House, in Gaz and Borkhar Region and Comparative Study of Shakeri and Homayi Houses in Isfahan. Athar. 2020; 41 (1) :66-91
URL: http://athar.richt.ir/article-2-622-en.html
1- Master of Architectural Studies, Isfahan University of Arts, Isfahan, Iran , khaleghian.sima@gmail.com
2- Faculty of Isfahan University of Arts, Isfahan, Iran
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The architecture and historical context of Gaz and Borkhar counties, despite their hidden values, remain unknown; According to the available documents, no comprehensive and coherent research has been done, especially on the architecture of its historic houses. One of the historical houses of this region is the house belonging to the "Ghadimi" family. Due to insufficient attention to cultural heritage, the inability of owners to repair and maintain it, as well as the fact that the house is now located within the street in the Municipality’s detailed plan, like many historic houses in Gaz and Borkhar, this house will be demolished in the near future. Despite numerous researches about Qajar houses and their ornaments in different cities of Iran, no independent research has been done about this historical house. This study aims to take a large step towards a better understanding of Iranian architecture in general and also Qajar houses in particular by introducing and analyzing the physical structure of the Ghadimi house. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to document the old house and compare the decorations of this rural house with similar urban examples - Homayi house and Shakeri house - in order to identify its historical period. In this research, descriptive-historical method has been used and it has a comparative approach. In this regard, library and field studies conducted at the building level as well as relying on oral history - heirs' memoirs - have been used. In the following, with a closer look, the two main spaces of this building, which are characteristic of this building due to its rich architectural decorations, are described in detail and their decorations are introduced. The most important decorations of this building include stucco with plant motifs, mirror work, application of stained glass in plaster and painting.
Changes in the building in different periods of time have caused the loss of the original plan of the old house. Since it seems that the subsequent constructions inside the building were without observing the common patterns, it is not possible to make a comparative study between its plan and the plan of other houses; but the remaining decorations indoor are so much that it can be compared with decorations of other buildings. The results of the studies indicated that the type of decorations used in the Ghadimi house and the Homaie house are similar to each other; but the motifs used are not the same. In the spaces of both houses, European paintings, types of plastering with Shir-o-Shekar technique (a plastering technique belonging to Islamic period), embossed plastering, Tongbori (plastering technique that makes room for jars in the walls), flower and chicken designs and mirror surfaces can be seen in combination with painting and stucco designs. Although Shakeri's house and the Ghadimi house are very different in terms of space, the decorations used in the Orosi Hall (halls with hung sash windows) of the house are remarkably similar to the decorations of the Ghaidmi house. Not all the decorations used in the two houses are the same; But decorative surfaces, techniques, designs, patterns, and even the location of similar designs are very close to each other. The surface of the painting with Shir-o Shekar technique in the hall of the house is more complete than the paintings of the old house and more parts of the paintings have been engraved. Comparing similar images of the decorations of these houses, it seems that part of the old house, which has rich architectural decorations and is the oldest part of the house, was built in the same period as Homayi and Shakeri houses in the Qajar period, and other parts of the house are annexes. Which have been added in subsequent periods.
Subject: History of architecture and urban planning
Received: 2020/11/20 | Accepted: 2020/12/30 | Published: 2021/01/19

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