Volume 40, Issue 3 (Fall 2019)                   Athar 2019, 40(3): 164-194 | Back to browse issues page

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Sadeghi S, Shahbazi Shiran H, Feizi F. Analysis of the Presentation and Use of Qajar Bathhouses (Case study of Sanandaj: Hammam-e Khan Bathhouse and the Bathhouse of the Mansion Mullah Lutf Allah Shaykh al-Islam). Athar. 2019; 40 (3) :164-194
URL: http://athar.richt.ir/article-2-505-en.html
1- PhD Student, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran , habibshahbazi35@gmail.com
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Due to the time proximity of the Qajar period with the contemporary period and as a result of the abundance of remnants of this period compared to previous periods, there is more knowledge about the decorations related to the architecture of this period. As a result of the special cultural conditions prevailing in this period, especially the influence of Western art, these architectures and decorations have found special and sometimes different characteristics from the examples of previous eras. It can be said that Qajar architecture somehow follows Safavid architecture. One of the buildings that followed a fixed pattern during the Qajar period was the bathhousehouses. Bathhousehouses, in addition to the functional aspect, which was a place for purification and cleanliness, and according to their characteristics and capacities, had social and even political functions and also had a kind of media role. Today, there are more than a few historical bathhouses in Sanandaj, but so far no complete and comprehensive research has been done on the comparative study of these bathhouses. In this regard, this research was conducted in a descriptive-analytical manner. The information collection was done in the form of field and library surveys to obtain commonalities and differentiation of Qajar period bathhouses in Sanandaj and analyze the structure and use of them. The bathhouses studied are Hammam-e Khan, located on the north side of the bazaar, one of the main structures of Sanandaj city and the bathhouse of Mullah Lutf Allah Shaykh al-Islam mansion, located in the center of Sanandaj and in the old part of the city next to other old mansions and buildings. The results of the research showed that their founders’ method and character play a very important role in being people-oriented. In order to develop urban spaces and because of his position in the government space, the founder of Hammam-e Khan, tried to develop urban spaces in areas that were strategically better located. In the bathhouse of Mullah Lutf Allah, its founder has tried his best to instill the goal of supporting the people and the link between the people and the government using symbols, decorations and architectural arrays. Hammam-e Khan and Mullah Lutf Allah Shaykh al-Islam's bathhouses demonstrate differences in terms of proportion and the wishes and expectations of the two founders; as we can see that Amanullah tried to show his power and position in Khan Khan, naming the bathhouse after himself for immortality. But the founder of the bathhouse of Mullah Lotfallah’s mansion, has mostly tried to recognize rightouness and fair judgment among the people. Since he himself came from among the people, he tried to establish a link between the government and the people. But the high spaces and the type of materials used in Hamm-e Khan show the glory and authority of the founder of the building and try to implement his policies in urban development in important areas, especially in the heart of the bazaar. Therefore, with these interpretations, although both of the bathhouses have the same structure and were built during the same period, the method and vision of the builders had a great impact on the additional spaces and even the type of building materials.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Architecture
Received: 2020/04/30 | Accepted: 2020/10/31 | Published: 2019/12/3

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