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Mehrdad Qayyoomi Bidhendi, Mohadesseh Nazifkar ,
Volume 39, Issue 80 (4-2018)
Abstract

Written sources on Iranian pre-modern architecture in Islamic middle ages are  very scarce. The material that is scattered in literary and historic texts is normally limited to monumental architecture, and mostly related to the architectural works and not to the process and the agents. Moreover, there is not much material on people's and vernacular architecture. However, there are surviving documents related to the Iranian's general life and social interactions which are full of architectural information. Over millennia, ordinary people have built thousands of buildings and villages. They also had to make written records for various social matters; especially when religion encouraged them to keep written records: in waqf (Islamic endowment), inheritance and trades. Waqf, inheritance and trade documens are often ignored but information-rich Iranian architecture, especially the people's architecture. Some of these documents, especially the royal and court documents are kept in governmental archives; but thousands of documents are in the possession of individuals, families and sometimes private archives. One example of these is the family documents collection of the Gorgāni (Estarabadi) families. This article is written based on two documents form the Estarabad family collection using the descriptive-analytical method. In this article we introduce two documents, going back to the end of the Qajar era, both of which are related to the construction of baths in two villages of Ganareh and Qoroq, located in Estarabad. Haj Mohammad Mehdi Kabir, one of the important merchants of the city of Estarabad, decided to build baths in two villages which probably belonged to him family in 1916. He employed builders and architects and made a contract with them. The dates of the two documents are one month and five days apart. The document texts and even their paper type are similar. From the handwritings it can be surmised that the scribe is the same for both document. The architect for the Ganareh bath is Ostad Hossein Banna and the architect for the Qoroq is Aqa Seyyed Mohammad Jafar Banna. It is remarkable that both of these architects are from Tehran. The length and remuneration terms for both the contracts are the same. Various parts and space units (compartments) of the bath as well as some of their physical features are mentioned in these documents. Some information can be also inferred with regards to the general composition of the bath spaces. The description of these spaces are nearly similar and have the same dimensions. Like most other historical texts, these documents give more information between their lines. For example, the documents do not give a description of each of the places they name. It is apparent that merely using the name of spaces such as central courtyard or platform was enough to let the patron, the architect and the witnesses know what the description is and how it should look physically. Or for example, there are no mentions of innovations by the architects. It was not the job of the architects to innovate and to use these innovations in constructing baths for fame in Estarabad, Tehran, Iran or the world. Their intention was to serve; their intention was to erect bath houses which were functional for the Qoroq and Ganareh villages to the best of their ability and meet the physical and emotional needs of the people.

Afrooz Rahimi Ariyaie, Mahmoud Mahmoudi Kamel-Abad,
Volume 39, Issue 81 (8-2018)
Abstract

Iranian covers have been invented based on the necessities and requirements of their time and have evolved gradually during centuries which has resulted in the creation of different types of them. In general, the covers are divided into two types of flat and curved ones. As a common curved cover in Iran, domes have had great influences not only on the geometric forms of buildings but also on the city perspective. Domes have been used in Iranian architecture more than other elements for their capability of covering a vast area. For the pressure existing among the dome components, any measure including renovation and strengthening must be taken based on the accurate and correct acquaintance with their overall nature and function; therefore, investigating domes and getting familiar with them not only reveals parts of Iranian architecture history but also assists us in proper renovation of these works. Previous researchers have studied and categorized Iranian domes but they have never been categorized extensively according to their shapes, main components and shell numbers. Considering the importance and use of domes in Iranian architecture, this research has been conducted at the aim of reviewing various types of domes and then presenting an extensive categorization based on their geometric forms, components and number of shells. Hence, this is the main question that how many types of Iranian domes there are based on the considered criteria. This research is a practical one and a compound research methodology (historical, descriptive and analytic) has been used to conduct it. The data has been derived from library and field studies (field observations of previous researchers have been used to obtain a comprehensive result.). What distinguishes this research from the previous ones is its variables, the research methodology and samples comprehensiveness. According to the results obtained based on domes shell number, there are 3 main types of dome. Each type in turn includes various sub-categories considering the space between shells, shell form (spherical, conical, combinatorial) and components (beam vault, opium poppy form, fasteners). Single-shell dome has 3 divisions: simple spherical, step-like, beamed domes, conical and domes with cupola. Double-shell domes have 3 main categories which include some sub-categories as well. Integrated spherical dome is the first type of double-shell dome which is the only separated double-shell dome. The second sub-category of double-shell dome is integrated hollow spherical dome which in turn includes simple, box-like, constraint, bladed and beamed forms. The 3th type of double-shell dome is the entirely disunited one which has 3 sub-categories: conical, spherical, combinatorial based on the outer shell form. Spherical dome also has some sub-categories: simple, onion, gothic, beamed, scalloped and zigzag. Double-shell conical dome includes 7 sub-categories: coneshaped, multiply, zigzag, scalloped, step-like, mound dome and combinatorial. For combinatorial dome two types of simple and beamed have been recognized. The last type of dome is 3-shell dome which has two sub-categories of spherical (simple and scalloped) and conical (simple, scalloped and multiply) considering their exterior shells. Totally, 27 types of dome have been recognized and categorized so far. Such form variety is the indicator of not only Iranian creativity but also acquaintance of Iranian master-workmen with the construction techniques and static issues.

Somayeh Podat,
Volume 39, Issue 83 (12-2018)
Abstract

Jag, scientifically known as Dalbergja sissoo and Shisham_Persian name_, and local names Sassam, Jag, Jagh and Ciso, is a medium-sized tree that often grows in the highlands and along the mountain rivers. Habitats of this plant species have been reported in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and in southeastern Iran in the Makran Heights, Jabal_Barez and Bashkard mountain ranges. Bashkard mountainous areas, the research area of this article; including Kart Zani, Pish Jā, Grish-e Jāsbi, Parkhāsh, Ashnut, Jagdān and Angoharan / Goharan have been reported as the natural habitats for Jag. More specifically, Gi majg _ 1600 AMSL_ and Pisken _ 995 AMSL_ are the habitats that have been reported as a result of local visits (Emtehani and Jazireh-ee 1381:58). The author has also observed this tree and its various uses in the heights of Dar-gwan village, Dar shahr city, Kāhken and Ahviri mountain range.
In linguistic and archeological studies, there is some evidence that firms this tree’s historical uses: the name of this tree and its wood uses are mentioned in Assyrian and ancient Persian texts, and also some parts of it have been found in archeological excavations in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Mehrgarh, Tell Abraq and Shahr-e Sukhteh. Most importantly, as the well-known Russian Iranologist and linguist Ilya Gershevitch acknowledges, Darius’s inscription mentions the use of Jag wood in the construction of Apadana palaces of Susa. As a result of a research trip (to record Bashkardi language) to ​​fourteen Bashkard villages and Dar-gwan village, and observing Jag tree and the doors made of its wood, Gershevitch suggests this hypothesis that these woods may have been transported from Bashkard to the sea through Minab River, and then they were taken to Susa. During archeological research in the area, the author found a vessel made of Jag wood in a historical-Islamic area at a mountain hillside near Jagin Dam. Then with locals’ guidance, He saw the Jag tree, near the village of Shun and Sit-e-pirow River at Dar-gwan village heights. Then, searching for the artists, craftsmen and professionals in this field, he found people with the knowledge of the right quality and having the skill of cutting and shaping the trunk and branches of this tree with simple and basic tools in Dar-gwan and kulegh villages.
This article - following valuable reports and researches by Ilya Gershevitch is an attempt to introduce this valuable plant species to the archeological community, a brief mention of historical sources that include the use of Jag, evidence of its use in historical and Islamic times in Bashkard, the possibility of communication between Susa and Bashkard and Jag wood transfer from Bashkard to Susa in order to construct Darius’ palaces. Also, hope that it will be the beginning of further professional studies in this field with the help of other sciences such as ancient languages, ancient botany, ancient climatology and archeology.

Elham Veisseh,
Volume 39, Issue 83 (12-2018)
Abstract

Sheikh Safi mausoleum includes a number of buildings of different periods, which Shah Tahmasb first turned them into a single complex. Later, Shah Abbas amended this complex and added important buildings to it. In general, the great importance of this historical monument is reflected in its relationship with the Safavid dynasty. 
According to the travelogues and tourists and historians’ writings and also photos and documents left, the first gate of Sheikh Safi complex, known as Ali-Qapu Transom, has had a magnificent and unique architecture. Unfortunately, due to various reasons, such as exhaustion and damages from war, earthquakes and conscious and unconscious human damages, etc., the remaining parts of this monument were destroyed after surveying the embellishments’ and mosaic tile inscriptions’ remnants  by the order of Mr. Ismail Dibaj, the archeology representative at that time, in the beginning of November 1942. However for some reason Ali-Qapu Transom, the square and the original space of the complex, have been destroyed and despite the damage to the spatial mass of the complex and its originality, today it is necessary to rebuild this historical monument and compensate for this damage and fix it. Achieving the complex’s historical and urban identity and completing it is inevitable. The remaining parts of this historical monument’s tiles are the most important goal and value in the reconstruction of the transom. 
There are many narrations and travelogues about Ardebil, Sheikh Safi al-Din mausoleum and Ali-Qapu Transom until Friedrich Sarre examined the mausoleum in 1897 and published the first correct description of this complex. His research results were published in the form of a book named “Ardebil”, which is one of the most important sources about this historical monument, and due to research activities shortage on Ali-Qapu Transom and the details of its embellishments; this research is of a great importance. Little research has been conducted on Ali-Qapu Transom including: Mesbahi (2009), Rezazadeh (1999), M, E, Vivor (1970). However, the studies and researches that have been conducted on this magnificent building are incomplete, and all the original sources should be re-examined and revised in the original texts.
The purpose of this article is to reach the general architectural design of this monument and to survey and document the mosaic tiles remaining from the transom so that despite the remaining black and white images from the transom’s generalities, the main color and technique of architecture, embellishments and mosaic tiles can be discovered.
The method of this research is based on the available documents, library research, field research and comparative comparison.
The value of any historical monument and old building is in the physical evidence that was made in the same period. The sensitivity of the embellishments and the Transom’s tiles protection is to entrust these documents and historical identity to the next generation correctly and without fail. Reconstruction of this magnificent architecture, which is a symbol, sign and part of the identity of Ardebil city, is inevitable. It is necessary to explain that Dar-al-Aman makes sense with this historical monument, means that it should be given priority with high sensitivity as soon as possible.


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