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Hanife Karagari, Behnam Pedram, Reza Abouei,
Volume 39, Issue 80 (4-2018)

Water can be considered to be the reason for existence and the main factor in formation of some of the traditional Iranian architectural structures. Innovative technologies such as [water] mills and water reservoirs etc. can be placed in this category. These structures are the result of the interaction of the previous generations with nature and utilising its various elements. The human of the past has managed to provide one of his main food staples by using water in mills and grinding grains into flour. The mills and other water related structures can be considered as physical manifestations of the interaction between man and nature. Therefore, these structures, as an existing element, possess remarkable physical aspects. The [water] mills in Boshrūyeh are no exception. Examination and studying their physical and functional aspects will result in greater knowledge of this technology. Becoming familiar with these mills can be considered as the first step in their preservation. Introducing these structures can bring about more activity, attention and interest in these structures. As evidence of the ingenuity of the ancients, these structures have values which justifies more detailed study. In fact, by introducing these structures, the human of today will understand the interaction between the ancient man and nature. Examining the studies conducted in this subject shows that the researchers have chosen three study approaches, namely historical, physical and functional. With respect to Boshrūyeh mills there are no detailed studies conducted and only one article has given a brief explanation about the water circulation through these mills and the rest of the explanation is related to the milling profession. The present article examines the mills, including the study of micro spaces, building materials, and their location in the Boshrūyeh region, and tries to gain knowledge in their architecture as well as their technical functions. The primary information is gathered using a literature review and then a field study has been conducted that includes photography, interviewing the millers, and visiting the mills to complete the information gathered. Finally, the gathered data has been assessed using descriptive-analytical approach. To that end, first the location of the mills has been examined, and then the Boshrūyeh qanat has been introduced. The final step is the examination of physical and functional aspects, and the building materials. The findings are that these buildings have a lot of similarity in physical and functional aspects. Physically, all the mills have complementary spaces for the mill and the main spaces are the turret, entrance, corridor and hall. Since the mills all have turrets, their technical functions are also similar. The water enters the turret via the entry channel and after turning the paddles, leaves the mill and enters the next mill. This is repeated seven times. The building materials used for these mills are also very similar. The use of stones, bricks, mud bricks, cob, lime mortar and plaster is seen in all the mills.

Azadeh Hariri, Maryam Ghassemi Sichani, Behnam Pedram,
Volume 39, Issue 82 (Fall 2018)

The architecture of residential spaces in Isfahan has put forward treasured examples to the world of art and architecture through history. House is one of the most important forms of the social organization of space in which numerous factors have been influential in its construction just like many other human-made complexes. Due to the changes in the recent century, historical houses are severely vulnerable to destruction, especially where houses constitute a significant part of the historical fabric of historical cities in Iran, including Isfahan. Modern development is one of the key factors in the destruction of and changes in the physical appearance of historical houses. They functioned as the identity-making element of the historical fabrics. Albeit they enjoyed many values including physical, functional and expressive aspects, they have been forgotten at present and sometimes become a crisis for a neighborhood. The result of disregarding the historical fabrics is to dishonor their historical and cultural identity. One of the worst destructions of the residential heritage of Isfahan is purposeful setting fire to such houses. After the demise of Allāmeh Olfat, his home has witnessed many damages and challenges. This house is one of the types of the Iranian residential architecture that in addition to physical values, enjoy unrivalled expressive and trans-physical indexes. This house was one of the cultural markers of Hassanabad neighborhood in the past, but it has become the least secure spot of the community at the moment. To achieve peace and security, the residents of the area endeavor to destroy this valuable heritage. Its destruction led in the disappearance of the dwelling pattern and its relevant culture. This research tries to explain the physical structure and function of Olfat House for documentation based on oral interviews, private and governmental archives. The main goal for answering the critical question is to provide scientific documentation of the structure by analyzing its physical and functional characteristics to clarify its values as an example of destroyed residential heritage of Isfahan. To carry out the project descriptive-analytical method has been employed aiming at the development and utilizing library sources, photos, maps, field studies, observation and interview. The collected data has been analyzed through a qualitative method by comparison and interpretation. The results reveal the physical and functional values of the house though studying the historical documents and comparing them with several contemporaneous historic houses in the same neighborhood. The Olfat House was of rare houses in the Qajar period which were equipped with a garden and bathroom.
Moreover, there existed a unique system of connections among a number of the relatives’ houses through dead-end alleys and private passages. The life in the said house was in concert with Allāmeh Olfat’s extensive activities. His activities in the field of culture and sometimes production such as rose water production reveal the trans-residential functions in the house.

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